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Sher-Muhammad and Bradley H. Taylor

185 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 723-730) FRUIT CROPS: GROWTH SUBSTANCES

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Moritz Knoche and Martin J. Bukovac

185 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 723-730) FRUIT CROPS: GROWTH SUBSTANCES

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Edward F. Durner and Thomas J. Gianfagna

185 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 723-730) FRUIT CROPS: GROWTH SUBSTANCES

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Stephen M. Southwick and James T. Yeager

185 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 723-730) FRUIT CROPS: GROWTH SUBSTANCES

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R. Nunez-Elisea, M. L. Caldeira, and T. L. Davenport

185 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 723-730) FRUIT CROPS: GROWTH SUBSTANCES

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Yong Yang, Xueyong Liu, Yuanli Jiang, Zuoxiang Xiang, Qingguo Xu, Na Zhao, and Bichao Shu

adjustments to adapt/tolerate salinity stress, which include the changes of free amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism. Free amino acids are fundamental compositions in the processes of protein and other growth substances synthesis, which are vital for

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M.H. Aboul-Nasr and M.A. Ahmed

This experiment was performed at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Horticulture Dept. of the Faculty of Agriculture at Assiut Univ., Egypt. After several attempts to determine the proper stage of buds for collection of pollen, we determined that the tetrad stage was most suitable. The pollen was cultured on either MS or B5 liquid or solid media (7% agar). Both media were used as basic salts or supplemented with growth regulators. The four growth substances were BA, NAA, K, and 2,4-D. Each growth substance was added to the medium separately as follow: BA, NAA at 15, 10, or 5 ppm; K at 0.1, 1, 2, or 5 ppm; and 2,4-D at 0.5, 1, or 5 ppm. The solidified medium was superior to the liquid medium at all the treatments that were used for callus formation. Using B5 medium did not result in any callus. The highest value of callus formation was obtained when MS medium supplemented with BA at 5 ppm. Moreover, the callus that was grown on the MS medium that had BA at 5 or 10 ppm developed a merstim tip. The control treatment produced calluses but did not develop any meristem tips. This process can be used to develop haploid plants.

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Jung M. Lee and N. E. Looney

Abstract

Regrowth of decapitated seedlings of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) of a compact phenotype revealed stronger apical dominance and narrower branching angle than normal seedlings. Normal and compact seedlings were also found to differ in their phyllotaxy at lower nodes. Spraying with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) before and/or after decapitation increased apparent apical dominance in compact seedlings; reduced shoot thickness in normal seedlings; and reduced shoot length and increased branching angle of both phenotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) increased shoot length and reversed the TIBA effect on branch angle in the compact seedlings. These differing growth regulator effects are thought to relate to differences in endogenous growth substance levels. Shoot tips of normal seedlings were higher in abscisic acid (ABA) but the dwarf pea bioassay indicated the presence of another acidic inhibitor present only in the compact seedlings. Normal seedlings exhibited higher levels of gibberellin-like growth promoters.

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Gerson R. de L. Fortes, Nilvane T.G. Müller, Janine T.C. Faria, Luciana B. Andrade, and Marisa de F. Oliveira

Asparagus is a vegetable that presents an increase in yield when propagated by meristem culture. On the order hand, the rooting phase in asparagus is greatly affected by the previous phase, i.e,. multiplication. This species presents a better rooting performance when callus is formed at the shoot base. So, the aim of this work was to evaluate treatments during the multiplication phase, which also leads to callus formation at the shoot base. The initial explants came from shoots being cultivated in vitro. It was tested kinetin at: (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) μM; ancymidol at (0.0 and 0.5) μM and NAA at (0.0 and 0.5) μM for both genotypes, which were cultured in a MS medium added to sucrose (30 g·L–1), agar (6.0 g·L–1) and myo-inositol (100.0 m g·L–1). Shoots bearing two buds were inoculated in 10-ml test tubes and placed in a growth room for 30 days when they were evaluated. The addition of kinetin significantly improved the number of buds and at 1.3 μM this growth substance presented the best results as number of shoots is concerned. NAA application promoted a negative effect on spear bearing. The addition of ancymidol in this phase did not improve the bud multiplication. It was shown that clone M14 performed better than the hybrid cv. Deco as multiplication is concerned.

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Rodomiro Ortiz and Dirk R. Vuylsteke

Apical dominance, i.e., the inhibition of lateral bud growth due to growth substances released by the terminal bud, has been considered as a limiting factor for the perennial productivity of plantains (Musa spp., AAB group). Segregation ratios in F1 and F2 plantain-banana hybrids suggest that inheritance of apical dominance is controlled by a major recessive gene, ad. The dominant Ad allele improved the suckering of plantain-banana hybrids, as measured by the height of the tallest sucker at flowering and harvest. At harvest, the ratoon crop of the diploid and tetraploid hybrids had completed 70% to 100% of its vegetative development, whereas the ratoon of the plantain parents, due to high apical dominance, was only at 50% of total pseudostem growth. Sucker growth rates are generally the result of gibberellic acid (GA3) levels, and it is suggested that the Ad gene regulates GA3 production. However, the Ad gene has incomplete penetrance, genetic specificity, and variable expressivity. Increased frequency of the Ad gene and a commensurate improvement in the suckering behavior of the diploid populations may be achieved by phenotypic recurrent selection.