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Emilio Nicolás, Trinitario Ferrandez, José Salvador Rubio, Juan José Alarcón, and Ma Jesús Sánchez-Blanco

, there has been increased interest in plants that have low water requirements. In this sense, the use of native species of wild flora may be an interesting practice because they usually are not water-wasters and their growth patterns are very well adapted

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Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Karen E. Koch, and Lincoln Zotarelli

For most crop species, nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient with the greatest influence on growth and development because it is a constituent of chlorophyll, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, and cell walls ( Fageria, 2009 ). Because N

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Bizhen Hu, Mark A. Bennett, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

seedlings from hetero- to autotrophy; i.e., from relying on seed reserves to photosynthesis for growth. Global, standardized protocols for estimating seed vigor define it as the inherent potential of seed from different seed lots to develop normal seedlings

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Xiuming Hao, Guang Wen, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos, and Shalin Khosla

and Jolliffe, 1996 ). Lighting or improved natural light penetration into the lower part of canopy increases cucumber fruit growth and improves the fruit quality ( Adams et al., 2002 ; Aikman, 1989 ; Schapendonk and Brouver, 1984 ); such improved

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C.G. Embree, B.H. Lesser, and A.D. Crowe

The 30 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstock candidates selected for cold hardiness, known as the Kentville Stock Clone (KSC), with `McIntosh' and `Delicious' as scion cultivars, were compared at 11 years of age for tree size, weight, fruit yield, and crop efficiency under field conditions. Trunk cross-section area and tree weight were highly correlated. Tree size was similar for the two cultivars in most cases and ranged in size from semidwarf to very vigorous. Cumulative yield efficiencies varied by nearly two-fold and were not correlated with tree size. The most efficient rootstocks were KSC 28, KSC 7, and KSC 6 in the semidwarf, semivigorous, and vigorous size classifications, respectively.

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Bernadine Strik and Gil Buller

The effect of early cropping (no removal of fruit buds the first two years) and in-row spacing (0.45 or 1.2 m) on growth and yield of `Duke', `Bluecrop', and `Elliott' northern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was studied. Plants were grown on raised beds for four years. No yield was produced on the control plants in the planting year (year 1) and year 2. Plant growth at the start of year 3 was adversely impacted by early cropping in years 1 and 2. Early cropping reduced the dry weight of the root system, crown, and 1- to 3-year-old wood in all cultivars. `Bluecrop' plants had less total dry weight than those of `Duke' or `Elliott'. Roots accounted for 30% to 45% of the total plant dry weight depending on cultivar. Early-cropped plants had a lower percentage of fruit buds than control plants. Early cropping reduced yield 44%, 24%, and 19% in year 3, compared to control plants, in `Elliott', `Duke', and `Bluecrop', respectively. Cumulative yield (years 1 through 4) was similar between control and early cropped plants in `Bluecrop' and `Duke', whereas early cropping reduced cumulative yield in `Elliott' 20% to 40%, depending on in-row spacing. Plants spaced at 0.45 m produced 62% to 140% more yield per hectare than those spaced at 1.2 m, depending on cultivar. `Elliott' plants seemed less suited to high density planting due to their large root system.

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Gaofeng Zhou, Bixian Li, Jianmei Chen, Fengxian Yao, Guan Guan, Guidong Liu, and Qingjiang Wei

growing points (root tip, bud, flower, and young leaf) and deformity of organs (root, shoot, leaf, and fruit) ( Wang et al., 2015 ). Further studies have suggested that the effects of B deficiency on plant growth may be realized through the B functioning

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Bing Shi and Wallace Pill

Growth Media

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Jingwei Dai and Robert E. Paull


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Pamela J. Paulsen and David Hensley

90 POSTER SESSION 14 Growth Regulators/Cross-Commodity