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Max G. Villalobos-Acuña, William V. Biasi, Sylvia Flores, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Rachel B. Elkins, and Neil H. Willits

pears by partially blocking gas exchange, thereby reducing ethylene production and action ( Kader, 1995 ). 1-MCP + adjuvant significantly delayed fruit maturation on the tree, especially for H1 and H2 in 2006 and H2 in 2007 when compared with the

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Xuelian Jiang, Yueling Zhao, Rui Wang, and Sheng Zhao

that water stress at the fruit maturation and harvesting stages in a greenhouse in arid northwest China significantly affected tomato yield. Chen et al. (2014) found that tomato yield was sensitive to water deficit at the flowering, fruit development

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Shugang Zhao, Jiamin Niu, Linying Yun, Kai Liu, Shuang Wang, Jing Wen, Hongxia Wang, and ZhiHua Zhang

fruit maturation, the endocarp formed the nut shell, which consisted of three parts from the outside in: a layer of sclereids with an extremely thick secondary cell wall (L1), a layer of sclerenchymal cells with a partly thickened secondary cell wall (L2

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Takashi Nishizawa, Satoshi Taira, Masanori Nakanishi, Masanori Ito, Masahiro Togashi, and Yoshie Motomura

Acetaldehyde and ethanol production by muskmelon fruit were promoted by short-term shading of the plants for 5 days from 10 to 15 days prior to fruit maturation. Sucrose concentrations in the fruit flesh were reduced by shading, while fructose and glucose concentrations did not differ. Shading also accelerated the development of a “water-soaked” appearance in the flesh.

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G. Martínez, M.T. Pretel, M. Serrano, and F. Riquelme

Resistance (R) to preloaded gas diffusion was used to follow the evolution of R during cherimoya fruit maturation and senescence. Cherimoya ethane diffusion was linear and gave an R value of 2048 ± 167 s·cm-1 for preclimacteric fruit. R increased linearly during maturation, and significant differences were noted between fruit in which diffusion through the stem scar was or was not blocked with petroleum ielly.

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Gary C. Marlow and Wayne H. Loescher

Abstract

Extraction and assay of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) throughout fruit maturation of 3 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars, watercore-resistant ‘Golden Delicious,’ occasionally susceptible ‘McIntosh’, and normally susceptible ‘Starkrimson,’ showed no relationship between susceptibility to watercore and extractable enzyme activity. There was, however, a relationship between increased SDH activity and onset of the climacteric as measured by ethylene and CO2 evolution, suggesting that SDH, like certain other enzymes, increases during maturation.

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William J. Bramlage and Sarah A. Weis

Preharvest environmental conditions apparently determine susceptibility of apples to postharvest scald development. Cool temperature, as hours below 10C, can greatly reduce susceptibility, but greater than 30C appears to enhance it. These effects appear to interact, because a high-temperature episode can cause loss of some low-temperature benefit. Shading of fruit increases their scald susceptibility and preharvest light conditions, along with preharvest rainfall, appear to be factors in scald susceptibility in New England. Fruit maturation reduces scald susceptibility. We are constructing models of contributions of these variables to scald susceptibility of fruit grown under different environmental conditions, and in this the relative importance of these variables is being evaluated.

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Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Gene E. Lester, Noelia Dos-Santos, Juan Antonio Martínez, Juan Esteva, John L. Jifon, and Plácido Varó

Fruit cracking is an important disorder that can cause severe loss of marketable yield and revenue in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruit industry. The physiological and environmental factors causing cracking are poorly understood. Although generally considered a physiological disorder caused by fluctuating environmental conditions, current evidence indicates that this disorder also has a genetic as well as a genotype × environment component. Certain cultivars are more susceptible than others, but wide fluctuations in irrigation, temperature, and nutrition during late fruit maturation stages appear to predispose fruit to cracking. This article summarizes the current state of our understanding of the causes of fruit splitting in muskmelons.

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Amos Blumenfeld and Gazit Shmuel

Abstract

The seed influences rate of growth, size, shape and maturation of avocado fruits. Seeded fruits are 8-10 times larger than seedless ones and contain more and larger cells. The growth pattern of seeded and seedless fruits is similar from June until maturation, when growth rate of seeded fruits decreases. Fruit maturation is characterized by rapid accumulation of oil in the mesocarp, preceded by shriveling of the seed coats, and the discontinuation of the seeds’ influence on fruit growth. The role of the seed in the development of avocado fruit is discussed.

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Eric A. Curry

Warm daytime and cool nighttime temperatures during fruit maturation are conducive to anthocyanin synthesis and starch degradation in many apple cultivars. In parts of the world, high temperatures during fruit maturation result in sunburn of varying degrees of severity ranging from slight bleaching of the pigments in the epidermal layer to cracked and desiccated skin. This experiment assessed the effects of sunburn on fruit quality and mineral nutrition at harvest. In September 1990, about 2000 `Granny Smith' or `Delicious' apples were examined for sunburn and sorted into the following categories: none, light, bleached, bronzed, buckskin, and cracked. Twenty fruit were collected for each category. Each fruit was subdivided into exposed and shaded halves. Each half of each fruit was evaluated for firmness, soluble solids, and acidity. Tissue samples were analyzed for sugars, total nitrogen, and mineral content. Data suggest that excessive heat due to solar radiation creates a gradient of sugars and minerals within the fruit resulting in increased disorders in certain areas of the fruit.