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Fahed A. Al-mana and David J. Beattie

A study of applying growth retardants under overhead and subsurface irrigation systems was conducted on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. cv. Tifway) grown from rhizomes in 15-cm pots containing sand medium. Paclobutrazol (50%) at 2 mg/pot was used as foliar spray or charged-hydrophilic polymers (Super Sorb C) and either incorporated or put below medium surface. Mefluidide (28%) at 0.01% ml/pot was used only as foliar spray. Before spray treatments, grasses were cut at 2 cm from medium surface, and the second cut was made at the 6th week from treatment. All growth retardant treatments reduced grass height compared to non-treated plants. The lowest grass height was produced by paclobutrazol as foliar spray under overhead irrigation in the 6th and 9th week. By the 9th week, all hormonal treatments under the two irrigation systems had no effect on grass quality, color, and establishment rate. Both paclobutrazol foliar spray and below medium surface charged-polymer treatments under subsurface irrigation had the lowest water loss and dry weight by the 6th and 9th week. The paclobutrazol charged-polymer treatment under subsurface irrigation had also the the lowest root dry weight among all treatments. Although mefluidide foliar spray was less effective on grass height than paclobutrazol, they had similar effect on water loss and shoot dry weight.

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Kellie J. Walters and Roberto G. Lopez

., 1976 ). It is labeled for foliar spray applications on floriculture crops to increase lateral branching, abort flowers and flower buds, and inhibit internode elongation ( Currey et al., 2016b ; Hayashi et al., 2001 ); although not labeled, recent

Open access

Gunbharpur Singh Gill and Juang Horng Chong

selected systemic and translaminar insecticides, which have been identified or are being used as alternatives to neonicotinoids by growers, in managing a sweetpotato whitefly population when the insecticides were applied as foliar sprays or substrate drench

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David L. Ehret, Carol Koch, Jim Menzies, Peter Sholberg, and Tim Garland

Foliar sprays of a nonswelling chlorite mica clay were applied to leaves of greenhouse-grown long English cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants, either before or after an artificial inoculation with powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlech.:Fr.) Poll.] and to field-grown wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) before natural inoculation with powdery mildew [Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill]. In all cases, the clay sprays did not eradicate the pathogen, but resulted in significant reductions in disease severity. In cucumber, a single spray of 0.5% clay reduced colony numbers on leaves by up to 60%. Spraying after inoculation was generally more effective than spraying before inoculation. In grapes, repeated sprays of either 2% or 4% clay were applied through the season to `Reisling' and `Chancellor' vines. Four percent clay reduced the amount of leaf surface covered by mildew by 22% in `Reisling' and 51% in `Chancellor'. Both concentrations reduced the incidence of mildew on clusters and canes. No treatment effects were observed on fruit quality. Our results demonstrate that foliar sprays of clay can reduce the severity of Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Uncinula necator on cucumbers and grapes, respectively.

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Robert M. Frymire and Janet C. Henderson

Uniform liners of pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea Roem `Lalandei'), photinia (Photinia × fraseri Dress) and dwarf Burford holly (Ilex cornuta Lindl. and Paxt. `Burfordii Nana') were potted into 3.8 liter containers in a pine bark:sand medium. Ten weeks later, plants received uniconazole treatments as a media drench or foliar spray. The uniconazole drench rates were 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg ai per container for all three plant species. The foliar application rates were 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm for pyracantha, 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm for photinia, and 0, 10, 25, and 50 ppm for dwarf Burford belly. Plant heights and widths were recorded at 3 week intervals, and leaf chlorophyll content was determined by calorimeter at the same time as height and weight measurements. At harvest, leaf counts, leaf areas, and shoot, leaf and root dry weights were determined. Initial results indicate that both foliar and media drench treatments of uniconazole reduced growth of pyracantha and photinia at all rates. Only the two highest rates decreased growth of dwarf Burford holly when applied as either a media drench or a foliar spray.

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Gang Li and Michael R. Evans

Seedlings of Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Tagetes patula (marigold), Viola tricolor (pansy), Pelargonium × hortorum (geranium), and Impatiens wallerana (impatiens) were germinated on towels soaked with either deionized water, nutrient control solutions, or humic acid solutions. Root fresh weight and root dry weights were higher for all seedlings germinated on towels soaked with humic acid as compared to seedlings germinated on towels soaked with deionized water or nutrient control solutions. Lateral root number and total lateral root length were higher for cucumber, marigold, pansy, and geranium seedlings germinated on towels soaked with humic acid than those germinated on towels soaked with deionized water or nutrient control solutions. Root fresh and dry weights were higher for impatiens, Begonia semperflorens (begonia), marigold, and geranium seedlings germinated in a sphagnum peat: vermiculite (80:20, %v/v) substrate drenched with humic acid as compared to seedlings germinated in substrate drenched with deionized water or nutrient control solutions. Foliar sprays of humic acid also resulted in increased root fresh and dry weights while foliar application of nutrient control solutions either had no effect or reduced root fresh and dry weights.

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Guihong Bi and Carolyn F. Scagel

, 1995 ; Tagliavini et al., 1999 ). Foliar fertilization in fall is an alternative to supplying N to the soil. In some perennial plant species, foliar sprays of urea after terminal bud set can improve N storage without stimulating new growth or delaying

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

al., 2009 ; Spann and Little, 2011 ). The objective of this study was to determine effects of RWE on plant growth and drought tolerance of tomato and petunia transplants when applied as a drench or foliar spray at various concentrations. Materials

Open access

Mingxia Wen, Peng Wang, Weiqin Gao, Shaohui Wu, and Bei Huang

improve the concentration of soluble sugar, vitamin C, soluble protein, and soluble solid solution but reduce the concentration of organic acids, thereby improving the quality of table grapes. According to a study by Zhao et al. (2013 ), foliar spraying

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Youzhi Chen, John M. Smagula, Walter Litten, and Scott Dunham

In a managed field of native Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. clones, the effect of fall foliar sprays of B at 345 g·ha-1 and/or Ca at 3,450 g·ha-1 in remedying tissue deficiency of B varied among 12 clones, as seen in pollen germinability and on individual stems as seen in flower number, fruit set, and number of harvestable berries. With Ca applied alone, increased berry size did not overcome yield reduction due to fewer flowers and berries per stem. Berry diameter and mass correlated better to number of seeds of germinable size than to total number of seeds. Pollen germination averaged 17.4% on stigmata from untreated clones, and all three treatments (B, Ca, B + Ca) increased that average by 8%. More seeds per berry with the B-alone treatment implies more ovules fertilized when B deficiency is remedied. No relation was found between in vitro and in vivo pollen germination.