). Paclobutrazol (Piccolo; Fine Americas, Walnut Creek, CA) was applied to the moth orchid plants at one of two times at 15, 30, or 45 mg·L −1 . The two application times were before flower initiation (18 Jan. 2008, when inflorescences were 1 to 2 cm tall) and
Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle
Denise V. Duclos and Thomas Björkman
understanding of flower initiation and bud enlargement can lead to new preventive measures. Vegetative to Inflorescence Transition In arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), reproductive induction (vegetative to inflorescence meristem) is controlled by a complex
Virginia Zrebiec and Harry K. Tayama
Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle
Phalaenopsis orchids require a day temperature of 26 °C or less to initiate inflorescences, whereas the night temperature has little or no effect on inflorescence initiation. We determined the duration of high temperature required each day to prevent inflorescence initiation of four Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis clones. In Years 1 and 2, mature potted plants were grown in separate greenhouse sections with five daily durations at 29 °C: 0, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h. The high temperature was centered in the 16-h photoperiod (0600 hr to 2200 hr) and the remainder of the day was at 20 °C. Exposure to 29 °C for 8 h or longer inhibited inflorescence initiation of Phalaenopsis Miva Smartissimo × Canberra ‘Mosella’ and Phalaenopsis Brother Pink Mask × Brother Success ‘Explosion’, but Phalaenopsis Baldan's Kaleidoscope ‘Golden Treasure’ and Doritaenopsis ‘Newberry Parfait’ required exposure to 29 °C for 12 h or longer to inhibit inflorescence initiation. Flowering was completely suppressed only when high-temperature exposure time was continual for Doritaenopsis ‘Newberry Parfait’ and Phalaenopsis Baldan's Kaleidoscope ‘Golden Treasure’ and 12 h for Phalaenopsis ‘Mosella’. Plant leaf span generally increased as duration of exposure to 29 °C increased, but high-temperature exposure had few or no significant effects on flowering characteristics of flowering plants. These studies indicate that as few as 8 h of high temperature can prevent flowering of some Phalaenopsis hybrids, whereas others require greater than 12 h of high-temperature exposure.
James F. Tammen
In the commercial development of an innovative process for the production of pathogen-indexed Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) in less than a year, it became desirable to quantify the cooling period so that the time of flower induction/initiation could be determined. Based upon studies of forcing flowering plants from bulbs, I hypothesized that cooling could be quantified using the cool temperature unit (CTU), defined as 1 °C below 21 °C for 1 hour, and the warm temperature unit (WTU), defined as 1 °C above 21 °C for 1 hour. The purpose of these studies was to determine if the hypothesis was valid. With 'Nellie White' Easter lily, it was determined that cooling could be quantified as hypothesized. The minimum threshold number of CTU that would induce flowering in at least one plant of the test population after exposure to long days was between 1200 and 2400, whereas the threshold number of CTU that would induce flowering in 100% of the population was 3600. The optimum threshold, i.e., the number of CTU that would result in the best market quality, was estimated to be 4800. The studies demonstrate that market quality, pathogen-indexed flowering potted Easter lilies growing continuously from bulblets can be produced in about 1 year, and that the cooling required to sensitize the plants to long days, which is central to the success of the fast production process, is quantifiable.
Todd W. Wert, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Jose X. Chaparro, E. Paul Miller, and Robert E. Rouse
The effect of climate was observed on the relative frequency of vegetative and floral buds in four low-chill peach cultivars (‘Flordaprince’, ‘Flordaglo’, ‘UFGold’, and ‘TropicBeauty’). The trees were planted in north–central, central, and southwest Florida. The percentage of blind nodes, mixed nodes (nodes with vegetative and floral buds), and nodes with only vegetative buds were determined from three representative shoots per tree at each location. In general, higher percentages of blind nodes were observed in central and southwest Florida and higher percentages of mixed nodes were observed in north–central Florida. ‘TropicBeauty’ tended to have a greater percentage of blind nodes than the other cultivars. Higher temperatures during bud formation most likely contributed to the increased amounts of blind nodes observed in the central and southwest locations and to the reduced amounts of mixed nodes. However, stresses imposed by bacterial spot and hurricanes may have contributed to the higher incidence of blind nodes in 2005. Our results indicate that certain genotypes have a predisposition for the formation of blind nodes. Advanced selections having low chilling requirements and potentially being adapted to a wide diversity of tropical or subtropical climates need to be tested in multiple locations to evaluate blind node formation.
Lindsay J. Davies, Ian R. Brooking, Jocelyn L. Catley, and Elizabeth A. Halligan
Tubers of Sandersonia aurantiaca Hook. were soaked in 1000 mg·L-1 GA3, 20 mg·L-1 uniconazole, 200 mg·L-1 benzyladenine, or water for 2 hours and then sprouted at 12, 18, or 24 °C. The effects of these treatments on flower stem quality were then determined at forcing temperatures of 18, 24, or 30 °C. Stem length increased with sprouting temperature only at a forcing temperature of 18 °C. Floret numbers increased with sprouting temperature at all forcing temperatures, but the effect was greatest at the 18 °C forcing temperature. The 12 °C sprouting treatment reduced floret numbers at all forcing temperatures. Soaking tubers in GA3 increased stem length but drastically reduced floret numbers, while soaking in uniconazole reduced stem length but had no significant effect on floret numbers. Soaking in BA strongly promoted branching, which resulted in large increases (>30%) in floret numbers per stem with little change in stem length. Of the three growth regulators, only BA was effective in improving cut flower stem quality. Chemical names used: gibberellic acid (GA3); (E)-(+)-(S)-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3 -ol (uniconazole); N 6-benzylamino purine (benzyladenine; BA).
Meriam G. Karlsson and Jeffrey W. Werner
The potential photoperiodic effects and interactions with temperature were identified for flowering of german primrose (Primula obconica). The german primrose `Libre Light Salmon' was grown at long days (LD, 16 hours) or short days (SD, 8 hours) and 61 or 68 °F (16 or 20 °C). Visible bud (VB, 2-mm flower buds) averaged 90 days from seeding for plants grown at 61 °F independent of photoperiod or at 68 °F under LD. At 68 °F and SD, VB was delayed and flowering (horizontal petals) had not been observed at termination of the study (146 days from seeding). Flowering averaged 111 days at LD and 68 °F, 122 days at LD and 61 °F, and 133 days at SD and 61 °F. When plants within each temperature were shifted at weekly intervals from one photoperiod to the other, increasing duration of initial SD resulted in slower VB and at 68 °F more than 8 weeks resulted in no flowering. Changing to SD from initial LD did not affect VB or flowering at either 61 °F or 68°F. These results suggest flowering of german primrose is faster under LD than SD at the recommended production temperatures of 65 to 68 °F (18 to 20 °C).
Ryan M. Warner and John E. Erwin
Thirty-six Hibiscus L. species were grown for 20 weeks under three lighting treatments at 15, 20, or 25 ± 1.5 °C air temperature to identify flowering requirements for each species. In addition, species were subjectively evaluated to identify those species with potential ornamental significance based on flower characteristics and plant form. Lighting treatments were 9 hour ambient light (St. Paul, Minn., November to May, 45 °N), ambient light plus a night interruption using incandescent lamps (2 μmol·m-2·s-1; 2200 to 0200 hr), or ambient light plus 24-hour supplemental lighting from high-pressure sodium lamps (100 μmol·m-2·s-1). Five day-neutral, six obligate short-day, six facultative short-day, three obligate long-day, and one facultative long-day species were identified. Fifteen species did not flower. Temperature and lighting treatments interacted to affect leaf number below the first flower and/or flower diameter on some species. Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern, H. cisplatinus St.-Hil., H. radiatus Cav., and H. trionum L. were selected as potential new commercially significant ornamental species.
X. Zhang, J.W. White, and D.J. Beattie
Aquilegia × hybrida Sims `Purple' and `Dove' initiated flower buds 5 months after seeding without being exposed to low temperatures. Four experiments were conducted to test the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3), long photoperiod, long photoperiod with a high level of irradiance, and cold treatments on forcing of the two cultivars. Time from treatment to anthesis was reduced by 9 days for defoliated `Purple' plants treated with 250 mg GA3/liter, and by >14 days for defoliated `Dove' plants treated with 125 mg GA3/liter. Defoliated `Purple' or `Dove' plants treated with 18 hours of supplemental high pressure sodium (HPS) light at 250μl mol·m-1·s-2 (18 SH) reached anthesis 14 or 10 days earlier, respectively, after treatment than plants grown under natural daylight (Nat). The 18 SH treatment increased the number of flowers from eight and nine per plant on Nat plants for defoliated `Dove' and `Purple', respectively, to 16 flowers on 18 SH plants. Cold treatments at 4 ± lC did not shorten the interval between treatment and anthesis, but decreased the number of flowers per plant in both cultivars. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).