An artificial neural network (NN) and a statistical regression model were developed to predict canopy photosynthetic rates (Pn) for `Waldman's Green' leaf lettuce (Latuca sativa L.). All data used to develop and test the models were collected for crop stands grown hydroponically and under controlled-environment conditions. In the NN and regression models, canopy Pn was predicted as a function of three independent variables: shootzone CO2 concentration (600 to 1500 mmol·mol-1), photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) (600 to 1100 μmol·m-2·s-1), and canopy age (10 to 20 days after planting). The models were used to determine the combinations of CO2 and PPF setpoints required each day to maintain maximum canopy Pn. The statistical model (a third-order polynomial) predicted Pn more accurately than the simple NN (a three-layer, fully connected net). Over an 11-day validation period, average percent difference between predicted and actual Pn was 12.3% and 24.6% for the statistical and NN models, respectively. Both models lost considerable accuracy when used to determine relatively long-range Pn predictions (≥6 days into the future).
Jay Frick, Cyrille Precetti, and Cary A. Mitchell
Chieri Kubota, Makiko Ezawa, Toyoki Kozai, and Sandra B. Wilson
The effects of initial sucrose (suc) concentrations in the medium (S0) on the carbon balance and growth of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. `Beniazuma'] and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `HanaQueen') plantlets were studied under controlled environmental conditions. Plantlets were cultured with 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 g·L-1 of S0 under high photosynthetic photon flux (160 to 200 μmol·m-2·s-1) and CO2 enriched (1400 to 2050 μmol·mol-1) conditions. Net photosynthetic rate per leaf area (Pl) decreased and dry weight per plantlet (Wd) increased with increasing S0, but did not differ significantly between S0 of 7.5 to 30 g·L-1 for sweetpotato or 15 to 30 g·L-1 for tomato. Carbon influxes and effluxes of the plantlets by metabolism of medium suc and/or photosynthesis, and respiration were estimated based on measurements of in situ and steady state CO2 exchange rates and sugar uptake during culture. At S0 from 7.5 to 30 g·L-1, photosynthesis was responsible for 82% to 92% and 60% to 67% of carbohydrate assimilation for sweetpotato and tomato, respectively. Estimated carbon balances of plantlets based on the estimated and actual increases of moles of carbon in plant tissue demonstrated that in situ estimation of carbon balance was reasonably accurate for sweetpotato at S0 of 0 to 15 g·L-1 and for tomato at S0 of 0 g·L-1 and that the actual contribution of photosynthesis for tomato at high S0 might be lower than the values estimated in the present experiment. Results showed that initial suc concentration affected the relative contribution of photosynthesis on their carbon balances and that the responses were species specific. The failure of validation at S0 in a range specific to each species suggested the need for further study on carbon metabolism of in vitro plantlets cultured with sugar in the medium.
Gene A. Giacomelli
film surface for reducing droplet formation and enhancing sheet flow of water vapor condensate; and selective solar radiation transmission properties to improve plant morphology. Environmental control Modification of the aerial environment for a single
Raymond A. Cloyd, Amy Dickinson, Richard A. Larson, and Karen A. Marley
environmentally controlled walk-in chamber (3-m long × 1-m wide × 2-m tall) with a white interior located in the National Soybean Research Center, Urbana, IL, with a temperature of 24 ± 3 °C. As soon as the fungus gnat adults were released into the central
Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight
emissions due to production protocols of the model system including the use of input products, use of equipment, and environmental controls ( Table 1 ). The total variable costs for this functional unit would be $0.666. As expected, the GWP and variable
Wei Hao, Rajeev Arora, Anand K. Yadav, and Nirmal Joshee
major objectives were 1) to determine whether guava, which is native to the tropics, possesses any freezing tolerance; 2) to determine whether freezing tolerance of guava can be enhanced by an environmentally controlled CA regime; and 3) to investigate
Tasneem M. Vaid, Erik S. Runkle, and Jonathan M. Frantz
use of plant growth regulators. These production inputs can be divided into cultural growing practices (e.g., watering, fertility, pest control) and environmental control regimens to regulate growth and plant development. MDT and the mean
Maynard E. Bates
Increased production and reduced costs are goals of all plant growers. As a rule, introduction of computer-based control of the plant environment in a well-designed greenhouse will result in yield increases of thirty percent (30%) over other control techniques. A simple model will show how these changes impact profitability.
New technologies in sensors, interfaces, computers, software, and plant growth knowledge are being applied to management of the crop environment. Examples of direct canopy temperature measurement, online plant weight measurement, integration and control of photosynthetic photon flux, and nutrition control will be presented. Integrated process control is replacing setpoint maintenance. Models are being developed for incorporation into environmental control systems. Examples for solar irradiance and crop growth will be demonstrated.
Ultimately expert systems based on artificial intelligence technology will manage crop production in controlled environments. These systems will incorporate information on crop genome, local climate, cultural practices, pests and diseases, economics, and markets, in addition to environmental control. A possible configuration of the hardware and software for such a system will be discussed.
L-Y. Li and J.H. Lieth
Greenhouse crop production involves high rates of energy input to implement a greenhouse microclimate that results in high productivity levels, correct crop timing, and desired product specifications. Producing quality crops while maintaining low energy consumption is achievable through improved crop management and environment control strategies. In this study, greenhouse crops and their microclimate were treated as an integrated system that was driven by solar radiation and external energy input. A set of simulation models were developed to describe the greenhouse climate, the crop, and their dynamic interactions. The temperature and light regimes were simulated using the greenhouse energy budget under typical weather patterns. The crop model simulated growth and development of several ornamental greenhouse crops. Coupling the crop model with the greenhouse energy model resulted in a system that allows determination of optimal strategies for crop management and environmental control. This greenhouse/crop system can be used to assist growers with formulating strategies of greenhouse production management.
Gretchen Hatch and Albert H. Markhart III
The concentration of active ingredient in a given dry weight of a medicinal herb is important to the consumer and producer of herbal remedies. Feverfew is a commonly used medicinal herb where the active compound has been identified. There is considerable variability in the amount of the active ingredients in different genotypes of feverfew. Important secondary plant compounds are often produced in the trichomes of leaves. The objective of this investigation is to determine if there is a correlation between the number of leaf trichomes and the level of active ingredient in several feverfew genotypes. Rooted cuttings of feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) genotypes previously characterized for parthenolide content were grown under identical conditions in an environmentally controlled greenhouse. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to describe and quantify the number and type of trichomes on the youngest fully expanded leaf of each plant from each genotype. The relationship between trichome number and parthenolide content will be presented.