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Kelly T. Morgan, Robert E. Rouse, and Robert C. Ebel

duplicate samples were included for each 10th, 20th, and 30th sample of the tissue samples, respectively. Tree growth and yield. Tree canopy volume was determined for each tree by measuring the canopy width in a north–south and east–west direction and the

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J.P. Syvertsen, M.L. Smith, J. Lloyd, and G.D. Farquhar

Five- to six-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on `Volkamer' lemon [VL = C. volkameriana (Ten. & Pasq.)] or sour orange (SO = C. aurantium L.) rootstock, were grown individually in 7.9-m3 lysimeters for 2.5 years using low to high rates of fertilizer N. Net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) of leaves and leaf dry mass per area (DM/a) increased with leaf N concentration, whereas leaf tissue C isotope discrimination (Δ) decreased. Leaf tissue Δ was negatively related to ACO2 and DM/a. Transient effects of rootstock on leaf N were reflected by similar effects on Δ. There was no effect of leaf N on water-use efficiency (WUE) of leaves (WUEL = ACO2/transpiration); WUEL was not correlated with Δ. Although photosynthetic N use efficiency (ACO2/N) consistently decreased with increased leaf N, Δ was not consistently related to ACO2/N. Annual canopy growth, tree evapotranspiration (ET), and fruit yield increased with whole tree N uptake. Leaf tissue Δ was negatively related to all of these tree measurements at the end of the second year. By that time, whole-tree WUE (WUET, annual canopy growth per ET) also was negatively related to Δ. Larger trees on VL had higher ET than trees on SO, but there were no rootstock effects on WUET or on Δ. Leaf tissue Δ was consistently higher than Δ values of trunk and woody root tissues. Citrus leaf tissue Δ can be a useful indicator of leaf N, characteristics of leaf gas exchange, tree growth, yield, and WUET in response to N availability.

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Bruno Casamali, Rebecca L. Darnell, Alisson P. Kovaleski, James W. Olmstead, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

. After harvest in June 2014, plants were top-pruned using a handheld hedger (PP2822, Poulan PRO, Charlotte, NC), reducing the maximum plant height to ≈150 cm. Plant canopy volume (PV) was measured at the end of the 2012 through 2014 growing seasons in

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Eduardo Esteves, Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Flavia Zambon, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, and Davie M. Kadyampakeni

relationship between canopy size and productivity (Vashisth et al., 2020). Morgan et al. (2006 ) found a linear relationship between total tree N uptake, TCSA, and canopy volume, in 3- to 15-year-old ‘Hamlin’ orange trees on Swingle rootstock, whereas Morgan

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Ryan J. Hill, David R. King, Richard Zollinger, and Marcelo L. Moretti

-sectional area. Tree canopy volume was measured in the summer of 2020. We recorded plant height and width parallel and perpendicular to the planting row; volume was calculated by multiplying each recorded value. Measurements were collected from all plants and

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Ed Stover, Stephen Mayo, Randall Driggers, and Robert C. Adair Jr.

block, with equal numbers per treatment in each block. Trees were evaluated for growth (height, canopy width along row and perpendicular, and trunk diameter at 20 cm) and health in Feb. 2020 and Apr. 2021. Canopy volume was calculated as one-half of a

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Mercè Rovira, Juan Francisco Hermoso, and Agustí J. Romero

(centimeters), tree diameter (centimeters), canopy volume (cubic meters), nut yield (kilograms), and yield efficiency (total yield per square centimeter of TCSA) calculated in 2011. This was the year when the trees reached the maximum available space between

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Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Arun D. Jani, H. Thomas James III, Cristina Gil, Mark A. Ritenour, and Alan L. Wright

). Tree growth parameters. The trunk diameter was measured twice annually at 6-month intervals from 2014 to 2019 using a digital caliper placed 7 cm above the graft union of sampled trees. Using the same annual schedule, canopy volume was determined using

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Sudip Kunwar, Jude Grosser, Fred G. Gmitter Jr., William S. Castle, and Ute Albrecht

shoots. Canopy spread was measured parallel and perpendicular to the row using a measuring tape, and canopy volume (m 3 ) was calculated using the formula reported by Wutscher and Hill (1995) : canopy volume = (diameter 2 × height)/4. Scion and

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Jeffrey G. Williamson, Luis Mejia, Bradley Ferguson, Paul Miller, and Dorota Z. Haman

was replicated three times with single-plant plots (one plant per lysimeter). Two additional nonlysimeter plants per treatment were used in combination with the lysimeter plants giving five replications per treatment for yield and canopy volume