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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians, and Adam W. Thoms

estimate of organic matter and organic carbon in non-calcareous soils J. Soil Sci. 15 1 833 837 Beard, J.B. 2002 Turf management for golf courses. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI Blomstrand, E. Eliasson, J. Karlsson, H.R. Köhnke, R. 2006 Branched-chain amino

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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

A new bioregulator, cyclanilide (CYC, Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, N.J.), was tested for growth-related effects on apple trees over three years. Although treatment with CYC produced small reductions in shoot length, its principal effect was to stimulate the formation of lateral shoots on current-season's shoot growth and from spurs on older wood. CYC treatment of `Scarletspur Delicious' apple trees in the nursery more than doubled the formation of well-developed feathers with wide crotch angles (≈60°) and with no effect on final tree height. CYC appeared to flatten the apples and reduce fruit size in one trial. CYC appears promising for lateral branch induction in apple, especially in the nursery. Chemical names used: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (Cyclanilide); calcium 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-4-propionylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylate (prohexadione-Ca, Apogee); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + gibberellins A4A7 (Promalin); polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid).

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Steven A. Weinbaum and T.T. Muraoka

An average of >20% seedless (blank) fruit are produced annually in Pistacia vera cv. Kerman. The degree of blank production was reportedly not related to individual tree yields and, therefore, was not thought to be resource limited (Crane, J.C., 1973. HortSci. 8:388-390). In two crop years, we studied the variability in percentage blanking among individual shoots characterized by widely varying leaf area to fruit (L/F) ratios. L/F ratios were related inversely to the percentage of blank fruit produced. Thus, individual branches behaved somewhat autonomously with respect to blanking. Our data are consistent with the view that embryo development was resource-limited. Although `Kerman' exhibits the potentiality for parthenocarpic fruit set, the hissed distribution of seedless fruit within the tree presumably indicates that blanking is an example of stenospermocarpy. Blanking does not result primarily from inadequate pollination under typical field conditions.

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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones, and Randolph Beaudry

2-methylbutyl acetate, which confer typical apple aroma characteristics ( Paillard, 1990 ). The esters are largely composed of either straight- or branched-chain alkyl (alcohol-derived) and alkanoate (acid-derived) groups. The ester product is formed

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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

Sweet cherry trees exhibit strong apical dominance, producing vigorous, upright shoot growth with limited lateral branching, particularly in young trees ( Elfving and Visser, 2006 ; Jacyna, 2002 ; Jacyna and Puchała, 2004 ; Jacyna et al., 2005

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Jeff S. Kuehny and Patricia Branch

Lateral branches of poinsettia tend to break from the main stem as plants reach maturity. The cause of poor stem strength is not known; however, suggested factors implicated in poor stem strength are: rate of nitrogen fertilizer used, type of plant growth regulator used, crowding of plants, or stem diameter of the cutting. Four different experiments were conducted to determine if these factors affected stem strength of poinsettia. Experiment 1: `Freedom Red', `Success', `V-17 Angelika Red', `Red Sails', `Nutcracker Red', `Cortez', `Maren', and `Red Splendor' poinsettia were fertilized with 20N–1P0–20K at 75, 75/125, 125/200, or 200 ppm N drip fertigation with zero leachate. Experiment 2: Three plant growth regulators were applied to `Pearl' and `Jolly Red' poinsettias. Experiment 3: `Freedom Red' plants were grown in a 625, 900, 1225, or 1600 cm2 area. Experiment 4: Rooted `Freedom Red' cuttings with stem diameters of 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, or 7.5 mm were used. A force meter was used to determine the strength of each lateral on the main stem of the six replications in each experiment. The lower laterals had the least stem strength and the top lateral had the highest stem strength for all treatments in all experiments. The stem strengths of some cultivars in experiment 1 were stronger at the lower fertilizer rates. Type of plant growth regulator had no significant affect on most poinsettia cultivars. The stem strengths of poinsettias in experiments 3 and 4 varied according to which lateral was measured.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

A series of experiments were initiated to evaluate the influence of notching on improving lateral branching of young apple trees. Buds on 2-year-old wood of `Redspur' Delicious/MM.111 were notched at 2-week intervals from 6 weeks before bloom to 2 weeks after. Notching increased lateral branching cubically with the greatest response occurring when notching was done 2 to 4 weeks before bloom. Bud break occurred equally well and shoots grew comparably when `Redcort'/M.7 were notched at the tip, middle, or base. Bud break and shoot growth from unnotched buds was greatest at the tip, intermediate in the middle and least at the base. Limbs of `Spygold'/M.7 were spread to a 45 degree angle then one bud from each l-year-old shoot was notched at either the top, side or on the bottom of the shoot. Notching increased lateral branching from all bud positions, but the greatest response was from buds notched at the top and least from those located at the bottom of a branch. Buds of `Marshall McIntosh' were notched on either 1 or 2-year-old wood. Notching increased lateral branching more on 2-year than on 1-year old wood.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

A series of experiments were initiated to evaluate the influence of notching on improving lateral branching of young apple trees. Buds on 2-year-old wood of `Redspur' Delicious/MM.111 were notched at 2-week intervals from 6 weeks before bloom to 2 weeks after. Notching increased lateral branching cubically with the greatest response occurring when notching was done 2 to 4 weeks before bloom. Bud break occurred equally well and shoots grew comparably when `Redcort'/M.7 were notched at the tip, middle, or base. Bud break and shoot growth from unnotched buds was greatest at the tip, intermediate in the middle and least at the base. Limbs of `Spygold'/M.7 were spread to a 45 degree angle then one bud from each l-year-old shoot was notched at either the top, side or on the bottom of the shoot. Notching increased lateral branching from all bud positions, but the greatest response was from buds notched at the top and least from those located at the bottom of a branch. Buds of `Marshall McIntosh' were notched on either 1 or 2-year-old wood. Notching increased lateral branching more on 2-year than on 1-year old wood.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

A series of experiments were initiated to evaluate the influence of notching on improving lateral branching of young apple trees. Buds on 2-year-old wood of `Redspur' Delicious/MM.111 were notched at 2-week intervals from 6 weeks before bloom to 2 weeks after. Notching increased lateral branching cubically with the greatest response occurring when notching was done 2 to 4 weeks before bloom. Bud break occurred equally well and shoots grew comparably when `Redcort'/M.7 were notched at the tip, middle, or base. Bud break and shoot growth from unnotched buds was greatest at the tip, intermediate in the middle and least at the base. Limbs of `Spygold'/M.7 were spread to a 45 degree angle then one bud from each 1-year-old shoot was notched at either the top, side or on the bottom of the shoot. Notching increased lateral branching from all bud positions, but the greatest response was from buds notched at the top and least from those located at the bottom of a branch. Buds of `Marshall McIntosh' were notched on either 1 or 2-year-old wood. Notching increased lateral branching more on 2-year than on 1-year old wood.

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San-Gwang Hwang, Yi-Ying Li, and Huey-Ling Lin

, horticultural wastes, such as the trimmed branches of fruit trees, are a good source of lignocellulose. However, it is unknown whether pruned fruit tree branches can serve as an alternative substrate for king oyster mushroom growth. In Taiwan, around 5113 ha of