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Zhitong Li and John M. Ruter

blooming vigor and longevity. Induction of polyploid genotypes is an effective means of producing enhanced characteristics and increased sterility. In breeding ornamental plants, polyploid induction has been widely applied to enlarge plant organs ( Caporali

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Ellen Thompson, Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, and Chad E. Finn

. 1 , “8”). On soft-tipped and untipped primocane inflorescences, it was common to have A 3 axes, and occasionally A 4 axes. Blooming of A 3 axes would begin simultaneously with the last opening of the flower on the upper-most A 2 axis, which was

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Namiko Yamori, Yoriko Matsushima, and Wataru Yamori

senescence because the ornamental value of many plants lies in the process of blooming. Yet, there are few studies of the efficient maintenance of plants indoors, where the light intensity is low ( Fanourakis et al., 2013 ). This highlights the need to study

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Shengrui Yao, Steve Guldan, and Robert Heyduck

Apricots are the first fruit species to bloom each spring in northern New Mexico, with blooming dates ranging from early to late March—or as late as 10 Apr. in 2010—depending on the cultivar and weather conditions each year. Apricot is well known

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Miklos Faust, R. Zimmerman, and T. van der Zwet

Abstract

Various pear species bloom at different times during the spring. Pyrus calleryana Decaisne is one of the earliest and P. communis L. is one of the latest blooming species. In 1975 there were 34 days between the earliest and latest blooming clones. When species or selections with different bloom times were crossed, two generations were needed to bring the bloom time of the progeny to the bloom time of the later blooming parent. The bloom of any given progeny occurred within only 4 to 5 days. No seedling in a progeny flowered later than the later blooming parent. Discovery of late blooming germplasm is essential for the development of late blooming types of pears.

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C. K. Kiang and Jin Zu-Zhao

Abstract

In Sichuan, China, 3 different types of Citrus ichangensis (Swingle) with mono-winged petioles and 1 type with tri-winged petioles have been found. Among 3 types with mono-winged petioles are an early-blooming type with white flowers, an intermediate-blooming type with purple flowers, and a late-blooming type with light purple flowers. The tri-winged petiole type is more cold-hardy than any other type of C. ichangensis growing in this area.

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Zhuping Fan, Yike Gao, Ling Guo, Ying Cao, Rong Liu, and Qixiang Zhang

distributed in a randomized complete block design, with three blocks in each population. To avoid contamination from other pollen, artificial emasculation was carried out the day before blooming, and the flowers were covered with bags after artificial

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Jiuxing Lu, Weiru Yang, and Qixiang Zhang

were harvested from 2-year-old plants of ‘Zangmei’ mei. Stems were obtained from a young stem tip. We collected new-sprouting young leaves in the spring. Fruit were obtained after 5 weeks of blooming. Organs were collected and immediately stored in

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Laura Soler and Julián Cuevas

leaves. Hand or chemical defoliation can be carried out at different times, shifting the harvest date to a more lucrative period. The removal of senescent leaves weeks before natural abscission moderately advances harvest as a result of earlier blooming

Open access

Enrique I. Sánchez-González, Adriana Gutiérrez-Díez, and Netzahualcóyotl Mayek-Pérez

presents a blooming mechanism called synchronous protogynous dichogamy. Its flowers are perfect, and the male and female parts are functional at different times of the day. The avocado genotypes can be classified as blooming types A or B. Type A genotypes