The Federal Clear Water Act and Florida legislation have mandated the clean-up of impaired water bodies. The BMP manual for vegetable crops lists the cultural practices that could maintain productivity while minimizing environmental impact. BMPs focus on increased fertilizer and irrigation efficiency, but growers must be involved in the demonstration and adoption process if this voluntary program is to be successful. Three commercial vegetable fields from farms recognized as leaders in fertilizer and irrigation management were selected to demonstrate how irrigation and fertilizer management are linked together and how management may prevent water movement below the root zone of melons grown with plasticulture. In Spring 2004, dye (Brilliant blue FCF) was injected into the irrigation water three times during the growing season and soil profiles were dug to determine the depth of dye movement. Similar results were found at all three locations as the dye moved below at an average rate of 1.9 to 3.6 cm per day. Water movement was greater early in the season as irrigation was applied for transplant establishment. These results suggest that some leaching is likely to occur on light-textured soils, even when sophisticated irrigation and fertilization practices are followed. Based on these observations, cooperators spontaneously proposed to use two drip tapes, reduce preplant fertilizer, use a 100% injected N/K program, and/or add organic matter to the soil as attempts to slow water movement below the root zone of their crops. This project shows that growers are more likely to try and adopt sustainable practices when they actively participate in the educational process than when production changes are mandated through legislation.
Eric Simonne, David Studstill, Robert Hochmuth, Justin Jones, and Cynthia Stewart
Thomas A. Obreza and Arnold Schumann
article are to describe how N and P are currently managed to grow citrus in Florida, to provide an accounting of the citrus N budget, to describe N leaching and P runoff from citrus production, to outline best management practices to improve citrus
Eric Simonne, Chad Hutchinson, Jim DeValerio, Robert Hochmuth, Danielle Treadwell, Allan Wright, Bielinski Santos, Alicia Whidden, Gene McAvoy, Xin Zhao, Teresa Olczyk, Aparna Gazula, and Monica Ozores-Hampton
Best management practices (BMPs) are cultural practices that aim at improving the quality of Florida waters while maintaining or improving productivity [ Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), 2005 ]. Because water is the
Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm, and Jerry B. Sartain
nutrient removal efficiencies for different types of structural best management practices used for stormwater treatment. Table 2. Typical construction and maintenance costs for different types of structural best management practices used for stormwater
Sarah A. Masterson, Megan M. Kennelly, Rhonda R. Janke, and Cary L. Rivard
the formation of the graft union. Leaf removal is recommended as a best management practice for the cleft and splice method ( Bumgarner and Kleinhenz, 2014 ). Reducing water stress on the scion tissue by removing leaf area may reduce or eliminate
M.P. Garber, J. M. Ruter, J.T. Midcap, and K. Bondari
A 2001 survey of 102 nurseries that were members of the Georgia Green Industry Association was conducted to assess irrigation practices of container ornamental nurseries. Mean nursery size was 64 acres (26 ha) and mean annual revenue was about $3 million. About 50% of the irrigation water was from wells and the other 50% came from surface sources, such as collection basins. Irrigation in smaller containers, including #1, #3, and #5, was applied primarily by overhead methods, while larger containers (#7, #15, #25) made extensive use of direct application methods, such as drip or spray stakes. Frequency of irrigation in the summer growing months was about three times that of the winter season. Georgia nurseries use irrigation practices suggested in Southern Nursery Association best management practices, including collection of runoff water (48%), cyclic irrigation (44%), watering in the morning (92%), and grass strips between the production beds and drainage areas (60%).
Gisele Schoene, Thomas Yeager, and Dorota Haman
A survey was conducted of nursery operators participating in workshops in west-central Florida. The purpose of the survey was to identify the irrigation best management practices (BMPs) adopted by container nurseries in west-central Florida and obtain information regarding emphasis of future extension educational programs. Workshops were conducted in Hillsborough County, Fla., and Manatee County, Fla., and participation was voluntary. Respondents were asked about BMPs used in the nurseries according to the irrigation system used and it was found that the majority of the nurseries relied on well water as the primary source for irrigation. While 69% of the nurseries monitored uniformity of microirrigation systems, only 35% monitored uniformity of overhead irrigation systems. Thirty-four percent of the nurseries collected irrigation or rain runoff and 9% knew the water holding capacity of their substrate. Most of the nurseries grouped plants by irrigation requirements (74%) and grouped container sizes by irrigation requirements (69%). The survey indicates that many BMPs are not widely adopted by nurseries in west-central Florida. The information from this survey can be used as a guide to focus the efforts of university extension educational programs to achieve greater adoption of BMPs.
Bielinski M. Santos
of fertilization best management practices that allow improving agricultural environmental and economic sustainability of crops ( Roberts, 2007 ). The implementation of these best management practices is tightly linked to four aspects of nutrient
). However, with the adoption of best management practices (BMPs), soil health can be improved while simultaneously optimizing nutrient management. Best management practices, which include cover crops, compost, and other soil amendments, are nonregulatory
Laura A. Warner, Alexa J. Lamm, Peyton Beattie, Sarah A. White, and Paul R. Fisher
strategies to evaluate. The technology options surveyed are consistent with a best management practice (BMP) framework for a greenhouse or nursery ( FDACS, 2014 ). These strategies and their definitions were as follows: rainwater capture: collection of