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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson

. (2001) and Michalak et al. (2015) concluded that P runoff from agricultural operations is a primary contributor to eutrophication in the United States. Substrates used in containerized nursery crop production predominantly comprise pine bark ( Pinus

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Aude Tixier, Adele Amico Roxas, Jessie Godfrey, Sebastian Saa, Dani Lightle, Pauline Maillard, Bruce Lampinen, and Maciej A. Zwieniecki

temperature interferes with phenology comes from the common orchard practice of painting stems to protect them from disease ( Karels and Boonstra, 2003 ; Sheppard et al., 2016 ). White bark is also naturally displayed in species of Betula , Fraxinus , and

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Kaylee A. South, Paul A. Thomas, Marc W. van Iersel, Cindy Young, and Michelle L. Jones

; Lopez and Runkle, 2005 ). Commercial production of Phalaenopsis is usually in a bark-based potting media that allows for good aeration and drainage ( Griesbach, 2002 ). In the home environment, proper irrigation is the largest challenge to maintaining

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Michael W. Olszewski, Samara J. Danan, and Thomas J. Boerth

Surfactants increase wettability of pine bark and may be required in coarse substrates to enhance lateral movement of water and reduce infiltration rate through a container ( Bilderback, 1993 ). Cid-Ballarin et al. (1998) hypothesized that

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Gary J. Kling, Hannah M. Mathers, and Luke Case

improving plant growth and reducing labor. Although the primary use of mulches in the horticulture industry is in the landscape, they can serve as herbicide carriers in container production. Oryzalin-treated douglas fir bark increased weed control by a

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James S. Owen Jr, Stuart L. Warren, Ted E. Bilderback, and Joseph P. Albano

that covers ≈186,000 ha with over 7000 operations accounting for $4 billion of annual cash receipts ( USDA, 2004 ). The majority (73%) of crops produced by the U.S. nursery industry are grown in containers with inert softwood barks as the substrate

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Justine Beaulieu, Bruk Belayneh, John D. Lea-Cox, and Cassandra L. Swett

( Evans and Stamps, 1996 ; Frenkel et al., 2017 ). Many alternatives exist that are arguably more sustainable, including coconut fiber (coir) and milled tree bark. Pine bark has been used in Mexico and the United States for several decades ( Madrid

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J.G. Williamson and E.P. Miller

expansion of southern highbush blueberry acreage targeted for this early market is anticipated ( Strik and Yarborough, 2005 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ; Williamson and Lyrene 2004a ). Pine bark culture is currently the most common method for

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Runshi Xie, Bin Wu, Mengmeng Gu, Stacey R. Jones, James Robbins, Allen L. Szalanski, and Hongmin Qin

). Although the insect morphology suggested the unknown scale on Spiraea were CMBS, observational evidence still has limitations in its ability to identify species. For example, the azalea bark scale, a close relative of CMBS, is often mistaken as CMBS

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Xiaoyuan Feng, Baogang Wang, Wensheng Li, Lei Shi, Jiankang Cao, and Weibo Jiang

vanilla showed antimicrobial effects ( Ahmad and Prasad, 1995 ; Damayanti et al., 1996 ; Kyu Kyu Win et al., 2007 ; Neri et al., 2007 ). Phellodendron bark, considered an important Chinese herb, was commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for