New four traits not yet reported were founded. One mutant plant was from a population of 81-1251-D-20M treated with EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate), which had tubular petals. This tubular petal plant had normal pollens in anthers, but could almost not produce its seeds without artificial pollination. It was controlled by one single recessive gene. One new spontaneous dwarf mutant line, R3-10, which bore seedcoatless-like seeds with short pappus, was crossed with normal breeding lines GL5 and 87-25M-2M. From F2 and F3 results, it was found that the two traits (seedcoatless-like and short pappus) were governed by each one single recessive gene. A stem lettuce type cultivar, `Baimach', seemed to be almost green, but was really tinged red, which was extremely suppressed in red color expression. Its tinged red color could not be seen, except on only very limited base parts of the stem and dorsal petal. In two F2 population experiments of the crosses of `Baimach' with `Oakleaf' and 98-43-3, it was found that the suppression of red color expression in `Baimach' was caused by a single recessive gene. It looked different from that of gene “v” (vanishing) by Lindqvist, because the red color of plants with “v” gene of Lindqvist were typically tinged and could be identified easily at a young plant stage, but not that of `Baimach'. I designated these new four genes as Tu-tu (Tu = normal, tu = tubular petal), Pp-pp (Pp = normal, pp = short pappus), Scl-scl (Scl = normal, scl = seedcoatless-like), and In-in (In = normal, in = inhibiting red color expression extremely).
Jennifer R. DeEll and Peter M.A. Toivonen
The objective of this study was to determine if chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as an indicator of anaerobic respiration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) during modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP). Two types of packages were used, PD-941 bags, which provided optimum MAP conditions for broccoli (≈3 kPa O2 plus 5 kPa CO2), and PD-961EZ bags, which allowed the CO2 to accumulate (≈11 kPa CO2). After 28 days in MAP at 1 °C, the broccoli from both types of bag had similar appearances and weight losses. However, broccoli held in the PD-961EZ bags had developed slight to moderate alcoholic off-odors and had higher ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate content, as compared with broccoli in PD-941 bags. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, T1/2, Fmd, and ΦPSII) were lower for broccoli held in the PD-961EZ bags than in PD-941 bags, and these differences increased with storage duration. These results indicate that chlorophyll fluorescence is a reliable, rapid, nondestructive indicator of broccoli quality during MAP, and that it could be used to determine if broccoli has developed off-odors without opening the bag and disrupting the package atmosphere.
Sanliang Gu, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Victor Sahakian
Applicability of processed fiber (methane digested cow manure) as a substitute for peatmoss for production of various containerized perennial woody plant species with various fertilization and fumigation practices was investigated in this study. Liner plants of five species and rooted cuttings of 41 species were potted in various media containing processed fiber as the replacement of peatmoss with or without fertilization and fumigation, with commercial mix as control. Plants varied in their responses to the media, fertilization, and/or fumigation. Most plant species performed well in the media containing processed fiber. The physical and chemical properties of processed fiber, either alone or mixed with other media components, were satisfactory for producing woody perennial species even with less fertilization and no fumigation.
Juan C. Diaz-Perez, D. Bertrand, and D. Giddings
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) can cause serious damage to tomato, pepper, lettuce, and other crops. The virus is transmitted by several species of thrips. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the time (t, days after transplanting) when TSWV symptoms first appeared on tomato plant size and fruit yield. Tomato (`Florida-47') plants were drip-irrigated and planted over black plastic mulch. The experiment was carried out in Tifton, Ga., during Spring 1999. High populations of thrips were detected since early stages of plant development, which resulted in a high incidence of TSWV. Plant fresh weight was significantly higher (r 2 = 0.632, n = 216) the later in plant development TSWV symptoms first appeared (i.e., with increasing t values). Total fruit production of individual plant linearly increased with increasing t values (r 2 = 0.664, n = 216). As with total fruit production, fruit marketable yield was also higher with increasing t values; however, marketable yield was significantly reduced even when plants were infected later in the season (t > 55 days after transplanting). Our results suggest that it is important to keep tomato plants free from TSWV as long as possible. This applies to both developing and developed plants.
Jessica DiMatteo, Lauren Kurtz, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand
Genetically female seed is sought for cannabidiol (CBD) hemp production because CBD is extracted from the flowers of female hemp plants. The production of all female seed requires masculinization of female plants to produce genetically female pollen that reliably generates female seed. Of the five female hemp genotypes that we masculinized using foliar sprays of silver thiosulfate (Abacus, Cherry Wine, Mountain Mango, Youngsim10, Wife), all genotypes produced fewer large and more irregular or misshapen pollen grains than genetically male plants. The masculinized female genotypes Wife and Cherry Wine produced pollen with germination rates similar to those of the male genotype Kentucky Sunshine. Female hemp genotypes vary in their ability to produce usable pollen that disperses well, is easily collected, and germinates as well as pollen from genetically male hemp plants.
Joseph L. Smilanick, David Sorenson, Monir Mansour, Jonah Aieyabei, and Pilar Plaza
A brief (15 or 30 seconds) high-volume, low-pressure, hot-water drench at 68, 120, 130, 140, or 145 °F (20.0, 48.9, 54.4, 60.0, or 62.8 °C) was applied over rotating brushes to `Eureka' lemons (Citrus limon) and `Valencia' oranges (Citrus sinensis). The impact of this treatment on populations of surface microbes, injury to the fruit, the incidence of green mold (Penicillium digitatum)or sour rot (Geotrichum citri-aurantii), when inoculated into wounds one day prior to treatment, and temperatures required to kill the spores of these fungi and P. italicum suspended in hot water were determined. Fruit microbial populations were determined immediately after treatment. Decay and injuries were assessed after storage for 3 weeks at 55 °F (12.8 °C). The efficacy of the hot water treatments was compared to immersion of fruit in 3% wt/vol sodium carbonate at 95 °F (35.0 °C) for 30 seconds, a common commercial practice in California. Initial yeast and mold populations, initially log10 6.0 per fruit, were reduced to log10 3.3 on lemons and log10 4.2 on oranges by a 15-second treatment at 145 °F. Green mold control improved with increasing temperature and treatment duration. Green mold incidence was reduced from 97.9% and 98.0% on untreated lemons and oranges, respectively, to 14.5% and 9.4% by 30 seconds treatment with 145 °F water. However, immersion of lemons or oranges in 3% wt/vol sodium carbonate was superior and reduced green mold to 8.0% and 8.9%, respectively. Sour rot incidence on lemons averaged 84.3% after all water treatments, and was not significantly reduced, although arthrospores of G. citriaurantii died at lower water temperatures than spores of P. digitatum and P. italicum in in vitro tests. Sodium carbonate treatment for 30 seconds at 95 °F reduced sour rot to 36.7%. None of the treatments caused visible injuries to the fruit.
Tyler Simons, Hanne Sivertsen, and Jean-Xavier Guinard
is more complicated than that of SSC and TA ( Miyazaki et al., 2012 ; Obenland et al., 2009 ; Tietel et al., 2011 ; Yu et al., 2017 ). Appearance, flavor, taste, and texture work together to create the sensory experience of a mandarin, which
Maite A. Chauvin, Matthew Whiting, and Carolyn F. Ross
, healthy, sweet, good appearance, good value, firmness, and ripeness ( Wolf et al., 2003 ). Cherries have a relatively short fresh market season due to high fruit perishability ( Dever et al., 1996 ). Furthermore, the optimum “harvest window” (i.e., period
Chengyan Yue, Zata Vickers, Jingjing Wang, Neil O. Anderson, Lauren Wisdorf, Jenna Brady, Michele Schermann, Nicholas Phelps, and Paul Venturelli
consumer acceptability of the aquaponic produce based on consumers’ evaluation of intrinsic attributes (for instance, visual appearance, color, flavor, taste). To better understand consumers’ food selection behaviors for various cultivars in different
Gianna Ricci and F. Bailey Norwood
possible differences in pecan attributes such as size and texture, how do natives and clones differ? The purpose of this study is to evaluate the appearance, texture, color, and taste of two popular Oklahoma clones (‘Kanza’ and ‘Pawnee’) compared with