United States ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2017 ). A growing number of Hispanic people are turning to farming as a profession. The number of new farmers overall has decreased between 2007 and 2012 [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014 ]. However, during
Elsa Sánchez, Maria Gorgo-Gourovitch, and Lee Stivers
P. Geoffrey Allen
Applied Risk Management in Agriculture . Dana L. Hoag, editor. 2010. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. 403 pages. $79.95, Hardcover. ISBN 978-1-4398-0973-0. While this book can be used as a stand-alone guide to practical risk
We gratefully acknowledge the help of the following individuals who assisted with the development of the Iowa State University Graduate Program in Sustainable Agriculture (GPSA) and GPSA documents: Matt Liebman, Ricardo Salvador, Lorna Michael
Kuan-Ju Chen, Suzette P. Galinato, Thomas L. Marsh, Peter R. Tozer, and Hayley H. Chouinard
( Özkan et al., 2015 ). Single-use plastic waste increases by ≈50% worldwide each year, and just 5% of it is recoverable through various types of recycling ( D’Alessandro, 2014 ). Agricultural plastic pollution is a pervasive problem to which the plastic
Roger J. Arnold, J.B. Jett, and William T. Huxster
Dept. of Agriculture. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.
Sandra E. Branham, Mark W. Farnham, Shane M. Robinson, and W. Patrick Wechter
(var. capitata ), cauliflower (var. botrytis ), kale (var. acephala ), Brussels sprout (var. gemmifera ), and collard in the United States alone (U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2014). Collard is a leafy
Mark P. Linder
Agriculture in the Classroom has become a major, positive force addressing the ag literacy challenge. In California, Ag in the Classroom began in 1980 when the San Francisco School District asked the California Farm Bureau to help develop ag education activities and materials for all grade levels. There is now an AITC effort in every state. Each state approaches Ag in the Classroom from the basis of its own needs and resources. The most successful state programs are a result of cooperation among agriculture, education, volunteers and government. The USDA serves as the communication link among states.
Major objectives of AITC include: 1) contribute to a population with a greater understanding of agriculture's importance to our economy and society, 2) promote awareness of career opportunities in agriculture. Activities and materials are offered in: Teacher Training, Student Program, Resource Materials and Special Programs.
When given the opportunity, educators realize the importance of agriculture to them and their students. They have found that infusing ag information into the lessons they teach adds an exciting dimension to classroom activities.
Eva C. Worden
Community supported agriculture (CSA) is an alternative model of farming in which consumers become “members” of a farm, by contract, to receive a share of the harvest. Case study interviews were used to ascertain CSA grower perspectives, as indicated by sources of information and motivations. Like most organic growers, but unlike most conventional growers, few CSA growers have family background in agriculture. Common sources of information and strong informal communication were observed among CSA growers. Primary information sources include other growers, printed material, and conferences. Conventional sources of information used in agriculture, i.e., the cooperative extension system and formal agricultural education, appear to be underutilized and are ranked lowest in importance by CSA growers. CSA growers are motivated in their agricultural endeavors by multiple goals: marketing, education, community, and environment. Marketing was the most frequently cited primary goal, followed by education of consumers. For many CSA growers, the marketing motive is not solely monetary, but also philosophical, as a vehicle for achieving right livelihood and building an associative economy that redefines society's relationships to food and land.
Gary T. Roberson
Precision agriculture is a comprehensive system that relies on information, technology and management to optimize agricultural production. While used since the mid-1980s in agronomic crops, it is attracting increasing interest in horticultural crops. Relatively high per acre crop values for some horticultural crops and crop response to variability in soil and nutrients makes precision agriculture an attractive production system. Precision agriculture efforts in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at North Carolina State University are currently focused in two functional areas: site-specific management and postharvest process management. Much of the information base, technology, and management practices developed in agronomic crops have practical and potentially profitable applications in fruit and vegetable production. Mechanized soil sampling, pest scouting and variable rate control systems are readily adapted to horticultural crops. Yield monitors are under development for many crops that can be mechanically harvested. Investigations have begun to develop yield monitoring capability for hand harvested crops. Postharvest controls are widely used in horticultural crops to enhance or protect product quality.
Laurie E. Drinkwater
Systems approaches to research can be used to study characteristics of agricultural systems that cannot be addressed using conventional factorial experiments. The goal of a factorial experiment is to break down a complex system in order to isolate and study specific components and identify cause-effect relationships. In contrast, systems experiments aim to understand how a complex system functions as a whole and thus requires that intact systems be studied. Two approaches have been successfully applied to agricultural systems research: 1) field station experiments where simulated cropping systems are established in replicated plots and 2) studies of intact agroecosystems using commercial farms as study sites. These two approaches have complementary strengths and limitations and have made significant contributions to our understanding of ecological processes in agricultural systems. The development of sustainable agroecosystems will be best accomplished using an integrated research approach combining systems experiments with appropriately designed factorial experiments.