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Javier Polo, Rubén Barroso, Jesús Ródenas, Joaquín Azcón-Bieto, Rafaela Cáceres, and Oriol Marfà

The effects of different kinds of biotic and abiotic stress on crops can be lessened through exogenous application of different biostimulant products. Although some of these products come from enzymatic hydrolysates derived from animal remains, the literature does not contain references to the use of enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from animal hemoglobin, specifically porcine blood. With the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of a product obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of porcine hemoglobin (PHH) as a biostimulant that lessens the effects of thermal stress, two experiments were carried out in which lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) were subjected to short-term episodes of intense cold and heat. After these episodes, different doses of the PHH product were administered into the growing medium. Moreover, in the heat episode experiment, one group of plants was first subjected to a heat episode and then administered a commercial biostimulant with the aim of comparing its efficacy with the PHH product. The biometric measurements carried out on the lettuce plants several days after being subjected to the episodes of cold and heat and then either administered or not administered the indicated treatments show that at the highest tested dose, the PHH product promoted a reaction that lessened the harmful effects caused by the intense cold and heat treatments.

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Jiao Chen, De-bao Yuan, Chao-zheng Wang, Yi-xing Li, Fen-fang Li, Ke-qian Hong, and Wang-jin Lu

hormone ( Tuteja, 2007 ; Xiong et al., 2002 ; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki and Shinozaki, 2006 ) and plays important roles in mediating adaptive responses to various environmental stresses, such as high salinity, drought, cold, and other abiotic stresses ( Night

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Emily B. Merewitz and Sha Liu

potential beneficial compounds to include in products for the turfgrass industry and for other agricultural crops. To our knowledge, whether exogenous rutin has utility in protection from other abiotic stresses or specifically in turfgrass species has yet to

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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Jeanna Mueller

enzymes and proteins, and detoxifying reactive oxygen in plants grown under abiotic stress conditions. Recent reports also show that GB may have a role in the salt overly sensitive pathway under salt stress ( Ashraf and Foolad, 2007 ; Chinnusamy et al

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Cong Li, Lie-Bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

, 2008 ; Zhang and Kirkham, 1996 ). Recent studies using genomics approaches have revealed that some transcription factors such as ethylene response factors (ERF) play vital regulatory roles in plant response to abiotic stresses ( Agarwal et al., 2006

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Jitao Li, Nian Wang, Lina Wang, Haiping Xin, and Shaohua Li

abscisic acid (ABA) during germination and early seedling growth ( Ko et al., 2006 ). To gain insight into the biotic and abiotic stress resistance mechanisms in grape, in this study, we isolated and characterized a novel HOS1 gene and investigated its

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Sunao Hisada, Tomoya Akihama, Tomoko Endo, Takaya Moriguchi, and Mitsuo Omura

A cDNA library was constructed from satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit tissues during the rapid cell enlargement phase. A total of 950 individual cDNA clones was partially sequenced and compared with GenBank databases for characterizing the gene repertoire expressed during this developmental phase. Among these, 426 cDNA clones (44.8%) showed sequence identity with previously characterized genes with optimized (OPT) scores of ≥200, while 524 clones (55.2%) resulted in low OPT scores (<200) and did not show any significant sequence identity with previously published genes. Based on nucleotide sequence, most clones with OPT scores of ≥200 were assumed to be transcription-, translation-, cell-wall-metabolism-, and stress-response-related genes. Other clones showed homology with published sequences related to housekeeping and stress-response-related genes, including metallothionein-like proteins, late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins, and heat-shock proteins. These results suggested that Citrus fruit during rapid cell enlargement were metabolically active and expanding in response to biotic and abiotic stress. For clones with low nucleotide sequence homology, the recurrence was evaluated by aligning nucleotide sequences of each clone and generating contig maps. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of 162 clones with OPT scores <200 have not been reported for any other organism. Collectively, randomly sequenced cDNA clones described in this study provided information on types of genes expressed during the rapid cell enlargement phase in Citrus fruit. These genes should be used as candidates for Citrus genome mapping projects.

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Tingting Zhao, Jingkang Hu, Yingmei Gao, Ziyu Wang, Yufang Bao, Xiaochun Zhang, Huanhuan Yang, Dongye Zhang, Jingbin Jiang, He Zhang, Jingfu Li, Qingshan Chen, and Xiangyang Xu

, 2004 ). ZF-HD proteins are one of the HD-containing protein families. The ZF-HD subfamily of homeobox genes has been researched in some model plants. They are considered transcription factors that regulate biotic and abiotic stress, and plant

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Renée L. Eriksen, Laban K. Rutto, James E. Dombrowski, and John A. Henning

increased abiotic stress tolerance. Heat principally limits the photosynthetic activity of plants ( Berry and Bjorkman, 1980 ). Allakhverdiev et al. (2008) identified three components of the photosynthetic system that are sensitive to heat damage: the

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Maxym Reva, Custodia Cano, Miguel-Angel Herrera, and Alberto Bago

extraradical hyphae ( Smith and Smith, 2012 ), and the important role of AMF in alleviating both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants ( Plouznikoff et al., 2016 ; Smith et al., 2010 ) have been widely reported, making this group of symbiotic fungi a target