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Emily E. Braun, Sarah Taylor Lovell, Mohammad Babadoost, Frank Forcella, Sharon Clay, Daniel Humburg, and Sam E. Wortman

Weeds are a top management concern among organic vegetable growers. Abrasive weeding is a nonchemical tactic using air-propelled abrasive grit to destroy weed seedlings within crop rows. Many grit types are effective, but if organic fertilizers are used, this could integrate weed and nutrient management in a single field pass. Our objective was to quantify the effects of abrasive grit and mulch type on weed suppression, disease severity, soil nitrogen availability, and yield of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ‘Carmen’). A 2-year experiment was conducted in organic red sweet pepper at Urbana, IL, with four replicates of five abrasive grit treatments (walnut shell grits, soybean meal fertilizer, composted turkey litter fertilizer, a weedy control, and a weed-free control) and four mulch treatments (straw mulch, bioplastic film, polyethylene plastic film, and a bare soil control). Abrasive weeding, regardless of grit type, paired with bioplastic or polyethylene plastic mulch reduced in-row weed density (67 and 87%, respectively) and biomass (81 and 84%); however there was no significant benefit when paired with straw mulch or bare ground. Despite the addition of 6 to 34 kg N/ha/yr through the application of soybean meal and composted turkey litter grits, simulated plant N uptake was most influenced by mulch composition (e.g., plastic vs. straw) and weed abundance. Nitrogen immobilization in straw mulch plots reduced leaf greenness, plant height, and yield. Bacterial spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria) was confirmed on peppers in both years, but abrasive weeding did not increase severity of the disease. Pepper yield was always greatest in the weed-free control and lowest in straw mulch and bare soil, but the combination of abrasive weeding (regardless of grit type) and bioplastic or polyethylene plastic mulch increased marketable yield by 47% and 21%, respectively, compared with the weedy control. Overall, results demonstrate that when abrasive weeding is paired with bioplastic or polyethylene mulch, growers can concurrently suppress weeds and increase crop N uptake for greater yields.

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R.P. Lane, S.M. McCarter, C.W. Kuhn, and C.M. Deom

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Samuel F. Hutton, Jay W. Scott, and Jeffrey B. Jones

Resistance of tomato and pepper to T3 strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is specified by a plant-inducible avirulence gene Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 13 911 921 Balogh, B. Jones, J.B. Momol, M

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Sabin Khanal, Sarah R. Hind, and Mohammad Babadoost

Bacterial spot of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) was first identified in South Africa ( Doidge, 1921 ). Originally, bacterial spot was thought to be caused by only one species, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria ( Stall et al., 1994

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Samuel F. Hutton, John W. Scott, and Gary E. Vallad

.M. Stall, R.E. 1983 Control of bacterial spot of pepper initiated by strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that differ in sensitivity to copper Plant Dis. 67 779 781 McGrath, D.J. Gillespie, D. Vawdrey, L. 1987 Inheritance of resistance to

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Gary E. Vallad and Bielinski M. Santos

.B. Woltz, S.S. Jones, J.P. Portier, K.L. 1991 Population dynamics of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on tomato leaflets treated with copper bactericides Phytopathology 81 714 719 10.1094/Phyto-81-714 Kemble, J.M. Davis, J.M. Gardner, R.G. Sanders

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Gary E. Vallad, Kenneth L. Pernezny, Botond Balogh, Aimin Wen, Jose Francisco L. Figueiredo, Jeffrey B. Jones, Timur Momol, Rosa M. Muchovej, Nikol Havranek, Nadia Abdallah, Steve Olson, and Pamela D. Roberts

initiated by strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that differ in sensitivity to copper Plant Dis. 67 779 781 Minsavage, G.V. Canteros, B.I. Stall, R.E. 1990 Plasmid-mediated resistance to streptomycin in Xanthomonas campestris pv

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Akihiro Itai, Takaaki Igori, Naoko Fujita, Mayumi Egusa, Motoichiro Kodama, and Hideki Murayama

–pathogen interaction. For example, treatment of tomato with ethylene enhances resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea ( Diaz et al., 2002 ), whereas it promotes susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria ( Lund et al., 1998 ). A similar variety of

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Derek W. Barchenger, Khin Thandar, Thain Gi Myint, Tran Ngoc Hung, Nguyen Quoc Hung, Shih-wen Lin, Yen-wei Wang, and Tsung-han Lin

). In Vietnam, the major chile pepper diseases include ChiVMV, phytophthora root rot ( Phytophthora capsici ), bacterial wilt ( Ralstonia solanacearum ), bacterial spot ( Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria ), and anthracnose ( C. scovillei and C

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Eduardo Bernal and David M. Francis

to race t1 strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria causing bacterial spot of tomato Phytopathology 95 519 527 doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-95-0519 10.1094/PDIS-03-19-0669-RE