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Júlia Halász, Attila Hegedűs, Zoltán Szabó, József Nyéki, and Andrzej Pedryc

fruit set, the self-incompatibility genotypes of self-incompatible (SI) tree crops have been studied intensively. Several S -alleles and incompatibility groups were described on the basis of molecular studies in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L

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Fuad Gasi, Naris Pojskić, Mirsad Kurtovic, Clive Kaiser, Stein Harald Hjeltnes, Milica Fotiric-Aksic, and Mekjell Meland

the causes of fertilization between Ingeborg vs. all pollinizer cultivars, molecular analyses of S alleles were performed. Materials and Methods The environmental conditions in Ullensvang, a municipality of Hardanger, Norway’s biggest fruit producing

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Júlia Halász, Andrzej Pedryc, Sezai Ercisli, Kadir Ugurtan Yilmaz, and Attila Hegedűs

) with a 358-bp insertion in the SFB C gene ( Vilanova et al., 2006 ). Additional S -alleles have been identified in Chinese cultivars ( Wu et al., 2009 ). Microsatellite analyses suggested that Hungarian and European cultivars might have originated

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Reut Niska, Martin Goldway, and Doron Schneider

S6 homozygous and heterozygous (with the other parental S -allele) states was, respectively, 71% and 29% in ‘Avri’, 67% and 33% in ‘Yehuda’, and 52% and 48% in ‘Akko 1’ ( Table 2 ). Table 2. S -allele distribution in ‘Avri’, ‘Yehuda’, and

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Kentaro Kitahara and Shogo Matsumoto

An S-allele cDNA was cloned from pistils of 'McIntosh' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). The allele, designated Si in Japan and S10 in Europe, is an S-RNase that is very similar (94%) to the S3-RNase at the deduced amino acid sequence level. This allele can be detected by amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific primers, followed by digestion with restriction enzyme EheI. The S10 allele was discovered in 'Empire', 'Maypole', 'Shinano Red', 'Spencer', and 'Vista Bella'. The S-allele cDNAs sequenced to date are listed with their Japanese and European designations.

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Kenji Sakurai, Susan K. Brown, and Norman Weeden

The S-alleles of 55 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and selections were determined using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification system for 11 different S-alleles (S2, S3, S4, S5, S7, S9, S24, S26, S27, Sd, Sf). Four cultivars had S-alleles different than those predicted by their parentage. Three commercial cultivars of unknown pedigrees had S-genotypes that suggested `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' were the parents. S-genotyping results supported controlled pollination test results. The genotypes of the five triploid cultivars examined were consistent with the unreduced gamete being contributed by the female parent. Although a large number of S-genotypes is available in apple, artificial selection or repeated use of the same cultivars as parents appears to have significantly restricted the number of compatibility groups associated with commercial clones. In controlled reciprocal crosses between two cultivars of known S-genotypes, the segregation of S-genotypes and S-alleles was 1:1:1:1, the ratio expected for random pairing of alleles.

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Shogo Matsumoto and Kentaro Kitahara

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for identifying the S-alleles in the Asian pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm) Nak.] was applied to apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars. With minor modifications in one of the primers, the fragments from S-genes (S-RNases) with introns were amplified from total DNA of apple cultivars possessing S2-, S3-, S5-, S7-(=Sd-), S9-(=Sc-), Sf- and Sg-allele genotypes. S-genes within S24-(=Sh-) and S26-alleles were also amplified. The PCR amplification step of this method appears to be useful for preliminary investigation of apple S-genotypes, especially for species or cultivars of unknown origin or history. Using the primers, which are a part of a new S-allele, the Se-allele encoding Se-RNase with an intron in the Se-allele was amplified. We cloned the cDNA of Se-RNase, and developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method for Se-allele identification. S-allele genotypes of seven apple cultivars were investigated.

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H. Yamane, R. Tao, A. Sugiura, N. Hauck, and A. Iezzoni

Most fruit tree species of Prunus exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles (S-alleles). One interesting aspect of gametophytic self-incompatibility is that it commonly “breaks down” as a result of polyploidy, resulting in self-compatible individuals. This phenomenon is exhibited in the diploid sweet cherry (P. avium) and the tetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus), in which most cultivars are self-compatible. Recently, S-gene products in pistil of Prunus species were shown to be S-RNases. As sour cherry is one Prunus species, it is likely to possess S-alleles encoding pistil S-RNases. To confirm this, we surveyed stylar extracts of 11 sour cherry cultivars, including six self-compatible and five self-incompatible cultivars, by 2D-PAGE. As expected, all 11 cultivars tested yielded glycoprotein spots similar to S-RNases of other Prunus species in terms of Mr, immunological characteristics, and N-terminal sequences. A cDNA clone encoding one of these glycoproteins was cloned from the cDNA library constructed from styles with stigmas of a self-compatible cultivar, `Erdi Botermo'. Deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA clone contained two active sites of T2/S type RNases and five conserved regions of rosaceous S-RNases. In order to determine the inheritance of self-incompatibility and S-allele diversity in sour cherry, we conducted genomic DNA blot analysis for sour cherry germplasm collections and mapping populations in MSU using the cDNA as a probe. To date, it appears as if self-compatibility in sour cherry is not simply controlled by a self-fertile allele as demonstrated in other Prunus species.

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

Incompatibility in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is of the sporophytic type and is under the control of a single S-locus with multiple alleles. Tests in recent years have identified four new alleles, bringing the total to 26. Improved pollen testers have been identified for several alleles. The S-alleles of more than 90 cultivars have been identified by fluorescence microscopy and will be presented. These cultivars (and their alleles) include Tonda di Giffoni (2 23), San Giovanni (2 8), Gasaway (3 26), Gunslebert (5 23), Kadetten (20 25), Lang Tidlig Zeller (4 20), Nocciolino Sangrato (7 17), Rode Zeller (6 11), Segorbe (9 23), and Simon (6 22).

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Dale E. Kester, Warren C. Micke, and Mario Viveros

`Jeffries', a mutant of `Nonpareil' almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb], showed “unilateral incompatibility” in that its pollen failed to fertilize cultivars in the `Carmel' (CIG-V), `Monterey' (CIG-VI), and `Sonora' (CIG-VII) pollen cross-incompatibility groups (CIGs), as well as specific cultivars (`Butte', `Grace', and `Valenta') whose CIG group is unknown. `Jeffries' is not self-compatible, but produced good set when pollinated by 12 almond cultivars representing the entire range of CIGs involving `Nonpareil' parentage, as well as the parent `Nonpareil'. It was concluded that the `Jeffries' mutant—both gametophyte and sporophyte—expressed a loss of a single S allele of the `Nonpareil' genotype.