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Carole L. Bassett, D. Michael Glenn, Philip L. Forsline, Michael E. Wisniewski, and Robert E. Farrell Jr

drought resistance in apple using M . × domestica ‘Royal Gala’ as our standard for comparison based on previous identification of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) responding to drought in this cultivar ( Wisniewski et al., 2008 ). Our primary goal is to

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Ejaz Mohammad Ansari, Frank B. Matta, Taqueer Abbas, and Mohammad Baquir

The influence of bloom chemical thinner Wilthin on three apple cultivars (Royal Gala, Blushing Gold, and Ultra Gold) was investigated. Two experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to determine the effect of Wilthin at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% on fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, yield, juice pH, acidity, SSC, sucrose, glucose, fructose, fruit firmness, and fruit set. Wilthin reduced fruit set of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden' and increased yield of all cultivars. In general, Wilthin increased fruit weight of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden' both years. Wilthin increased fruit length and diameter of `Royal Gala' and `Ultra Gold', but it did not affect fruit length of `Blushing Golden'. Wilthin increased fruit juice pH of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden' during both years. Wilthin decreased fruit juice acidity of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. In 1995, Wilthin increased SSC of `Royal Gala' and `Ultra Gold'. In 1996, Wilthin did not effect SSC of `Royal Gala' and `Blushing Golden', but increased SSC of `Ultra Gold'. Wilthin increased sucrose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Wilthin did not effect fruit juice glucose concentration of `Royal Gala' but increased fruit juice glucose concentration of `Ultra Gold' and `Blushing Golden'. Wilthin did not influenced fructose content of `Royal Gala' and `Blushing Golden' apples. Wilthin increased fructose contents of `Ultra Gold'. Accel increased fruit firmness of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden' and increased fruit firmness of `Royal Gala'.

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Eric A. Curry

red pigmentation such as Royal Gala or Golden Delicious (E.A. Curry, unpublished data). In large part, these experiments were conducted to clarify the nature and appearance of peel injury induced by normal or excessive concentrations of aqueous

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Mohammad Ejaz Ansari and Frank B. Matta

The influence of chemical thinners Accel and ethephon on three apple cultivars Royal Gala, Blushing Gold, and Ultra Gold was investigated. Two experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to determine the effect of Accel at 0, 25, 50, and 75 ppm and ethephon at 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm on fruit juice SSC, fruit juice sucrose, fruit juice glucose, fruit juice fructose, and fruit set. Accel and ethephon reduced fruit set of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. In 1995, chemical fruit thinners Accel and ethephon increased SSC of `Royal Gala' and `Ultra Gold' and did not affect SSC of `Blushing Golden'. In 1996, Accel and ethephon did not effect the SSC of `Royal Gala' and `Blushing Golden'. However, Accel increased SSC of `Ultra Gold'. Accel and ethephon increased sucrose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Accel increased fruit juice glucose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Ethephon did not effect fruit juice glucose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Accel did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Royal Gala'. However, Accel increased fructose levels of `Ultra Gold' and `Blushing Golden' in 1995. Accel did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Blushing Golden' in 1996. Ethephon did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Royal Gala'. Ethephon increased fruit juice fructose concentration of `Ultra Gold'. Ethephon did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Blushing Golden'.

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Babak Talebpour, Maksut Barış Eminoğlu, Uğur Yegül, and Ufuk Türker

. 4384978 N, long. 4737222 E). The orchard was planted in 2003 and included seven apple varieties: ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Red Chief’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Mondial Gala’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Fuji’, and ‘Mitch Gala’. Each variety was planted in three 3-m rows, with 38 trees in each

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Brian Makeredza, Helen Marais, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze, and Willem J. Steyn

–10 season. Seven apple cultivars were used viz green Granny Smith and Golden Delicious, blushed Royal Gala, Fuji, Braeburn, and Cripps' Pink, and the full red Topred. ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Granny Smith’, and ‘Fuji’ were all on M793 rootstock. The remaining

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D.C. Ferree, J.R. Schupp, D.S. Tustin, and W. Cashmore

Flower and spur characteristics of eight apple cultivars were determined at bloom and following cell division and related to fruit growth over the season. Flower number per spur was higher in `Jonagold', `Fiesta', `Southern Snap', `Royal Gala', than in `Red Chief Delicious', `Pacific Rose' and `Fuji', and the latter three cultivars also had the lowest total flower dry weight per spur. Generally, pedicel length of the king flower was shorter than the lateral, with `Fuji' having the longest king flower pedicel and `Red Chief' and `Pacific Rose' the shortest. At full bloom, `Jonagold' and `Fiesta' had the most leaves/spur, followed by `Fuji', `Southern Snap', `Royal Gala', `Pacific Rose', with `Red Chief' having fewer leaves/spur than all other cultivars. Leaf area/spur was highest in `Jonagold', `Fiesta', `Royal Gala', and `Fuji', followed by `Southern Snap', with `Red Chief' and `Pacific Rose' having lower leaf areas and fruit set than all other cultivars. At the end of cell division, `Fuji' and `Jonagold' had the highest leaf area per spur and `Fuji' and `Royal Gala' the highest bourse leaf area. `Braeburn' and `Red Chief' had lower bourse leaf areas than all other cultivars. `Royal Gala', `Southern Snap', and `Fuji' had the longest bourse shoots and `Red Chief' the shortest.

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Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta

A study of spur-type apple scion cultivars on semi-dwarf and dwarf apple rootstocks was conducted to evaluate and identify suitable scion/stock combination for Mississippi. Fruit weight varied among scion/stock combinations. `Royal Gala' on MM111 and MM106 and `Ultra Gold' on MM106 yielded the heaviest fruit. `Jon-A-Red' on Mark produced the lightest fruit. Fruit length diameter ratio (L/D) was the highest for `Blushing Golden' on M7A and MM111, and `Ultra Gold' on MM111. The L/D ratio of `Royal Gala' was not affected by rootstock. Scion cultivars on M7A and M26 tended to have more red fruit than on the remaining rootstocks. `Ultra Gold' on M26 and `Braeburn' on Mark and MM111 had the firmest fruit. Overall, trees on M7A and Mark rootstock tended to produce firm fruit. Juice pH was significantly affected by scion-stock combination. In general, `Royal Gala', regardless of rootstock, had the highest juice pH, whereas `Ultra Mac' and `Jon-A-Red' produced the lowest pH. `Blushing Golden' on MM111 and `Royal Gala' on M26 had the highest soluble solids concentration (SSC). Soluble solids concentration of scion cultivars on MM106 did not differ.

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J.P. Mattheis, D.A. Buchanan, and J.K. Fellman

Quantitative and qualitative changes in net production of volatile compounds by apples occurs during fruit development with a major transition to ester production occurring as fruit ripening begins. Ester production during fruit ripening is an ethylene-mediated response; however, differences in maturation patterns among apple cultivars led us to examine the relationship between ester production and onset of the ethylene climacteric in several commercial apple cultivars. Emission of volatile esters as a function of apple fruit development was evaluated for `Royal Gala', `Bisbee Delicious', `Granny Smith', and `Fuji' apple fruit during two harvest seasons. Apples were harvested weekly and analyses of harvest maturity were performed the day after harvest. Non-ethylene volatiles were collected from intact fruit using dynamic headspace sampling onto Tenax traps. Fruit from each harvest was stored at 1°C in air for 5 months (3 months for `Royal Gala') plus 7 days ripening at 20°C, then apples were evaluated for the development of disorders. The transition to ester production occurred after internal ethylene exceeded 0.1 μL for `Royal Gala', `Bisbee Delicious', and `Fuji'. Ester emission by `Granny Smith' apples remained low throughout the harvest period. Increased ester emission occurred after the optimum harvest date (as determined by the starch index and internal ethylene concentration) for controlled-atmosphere storage of `Bisbee Delicious' and prior to optimum maturity for `Royal Gala' and `Fuji'. A relationship between the potential for development of superficial scald and ester production at harvest was evident only for `Bisbee Delicious' apples.

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M.A. Cliff, M.C. King, and C. Hampson

Conventional (analysis of variance, mean preference scores) and novel (R-index) methodologies for hedonic assessments of `Silken' and `Creston' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars from the breeding program at Summerland, B.C., were compared with the standard cultivars Royal Gala, Jonagold, and Golden Delicious. Visual and flavor preferences were evaluated for either three or five cultivars by panels of 50 to 200 consumers. Consumers were successfully able to evaluate five apple samples at a given session. Significant differences in mean preference scores and R-indices were found among cultivars. Both `Silken' and `Creston' had higher flavor and lower visual preference ratings than did `Royal Gala'. Results were consistent for both methodologies when panels consisted of 100 or more consumers. R-index, however, expressed the results as a probability rather than a mean score, and was a more understandable and interpretable measure of consumer preference than were preference ratings.