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Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, Patrick A. Reeves, Philip L. Forsline, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

The domestication of Malus × domestica Borkh. has not been fully documented. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. from central Asia is thought to be a major species contributor, while Malus orientalis and Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. are

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Andreas Winkler, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, Julian Lindstaedt, and Dirk Köpcke

. In addition, we analyzed weather records for the 2005–13 growing seasons to look for potential correlative relationships between the occurrence of rain and the severity of the skin spot disorder. Materials and Methods ‘Elstar’ apples ( Malus

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Ran Chen, Weitao Jiang, Haiyan Wang, Fengbing Pan, Hai Fan, Xuesen Chen, Xiang Shen, Chengmiao Yin, and Zhiquan Mao

contrast, few studies have focused on the prevention and reduction of ARD and compared the efficacy of different fumigants. In our study, apple rootstock Malus hupehensis seedlings were used in pot experiments to examine the effects of five fumigants on

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Hala G. Zahreddine, Daniel K. Struve, and Salma N. Talhouk

species with ornamental traits, Malus trilobata (Schneid.) and Acer syriacum (Boiss. and Gaill.). The two species are not commonly grown in Lebanese nurseries and there are no reports on container production or nutrient partitioning of the species

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Ji Tian, Zhen-yun Han, Li-ru Zhang, Ting-Ting Song, Jie Zhang, Jin-Yan Li, and Yuncong Yao

in Malus crabapple ( Fig. 1 ), which accumulates high levels of anthocyanins in its leaves and flowers ( Deluc, 2006 ; Henry-Kirk et al., 2012 ; Schaart et al., 2013 ). Indeed, crabapple leaves are used as a raw material for the extraction of

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M.E. Garcia, C.R. Rom, J.B. Murphy, and G.W. Felton

The leaf phenolic content of 25 Malus species obtained from the National Germplasm Repository was evaluated. Two methods were utilized for determination of phenolic quantity and form. Total dihydroxy phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method using diphenlboric acid 2 aminoethyl ester as the reagent. These phenolics were quantified by using HPLC. Differences in phenolic quantity and type among the species were observed. This variation will be discussed in relation to apple–insect interactions.

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T. Scott Starr and L. F. Thompson

Interveinal chlorosis has been observed on the oldest leaves of several varieties of flowering crabapple (Malus sargentii Rehl). Our objective was to identify the cause of this disorder. Foliage and soil from 20 Sargent crabapple trees growing on 12 different sites were analyzed for possible nutrient deficiencies or excesses. Analyses showed N to be slightly low, Ca high, and Mg low in all leaf samples. Soil analysis showed Ca to be abnormally high at all sites. We concluded that the leaf discoloration was caused by a Mg deficiency due to Ca suppression of the Mg and that the low foliar N might be a contributing factor in the interveinal chlorosis.

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H.M. Mathers and C. Stushnoff

Twelve-week-old Malus seedlings were induced to cold harden by exposure to low temperature and freezing environments. The effectiveness of induced acclimation by exposure to stimuli such as low temperature (3 to 5 °C), frequency of exposure to freezing temperatures (-3 °C), storage time before and after induction and the effects of different screening temperatures (-20, -30, and -40 °C) were investigated with seedlings grown in a greenhouse from open-pollinated `Golden Delicious' apple (Malus pumila (Mill.), `Antonovka' apple (M. baccata (L.) Borkh. × (M. pumila) and `Rescue' apple (M. baccata) × (M. pumila). Differentiation of the seedling populations with respect to cold hardiness was not achieved until after acclimation at cool temperatures (3 to 5 °C) for 6 weeks. Further population differentiation was achieved by exposure to one or more frosts (-3 °C). Once the acclimation response had been initiated the seedlings could be held for up to 11 days, under the same conditions, with no significant decrease in hardiness. Hardiness levels of acclimated and nonacclimated open pollinated seedlings coincided with known inherent hardiness responses for all three maternal cultivars evaluated. A binomial form of regrowth data collection, percent seedling survival, was determined to be the most efficient and most precise measure of evaluation. Induction of cold hardiness in very young seedlings and the use of a controlled freeze testing protocol should facilitate rapid screening of large progenies and improve the rate of progress in breeding for cold hardiness.

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Maria M. Jenderek, Phil Forsline, Joseph Postman, Ed Stover, and David Ellis

nitrogen, or both. Cryopreservation safeguards the genetic resources from abiotic and biotic stress. In the USDA-ARS germplasm collection, over 100 Malus (apple) accessions were lost to disease in the field gene bank and exist today only because they were

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Aroldo Isudro Rumayor Flores*, Jose Antonio Vázquez Ramos, Martínez Cano Andres, and Borrego Escalante Fernando

In hybrids of apple (Malus × domestica Bork.) subjected to study phenological in Aguanueva, Coahuila, Mexico, their requirements of chill hours (CH), heat units (HU), bud breaking flower and vegetative % (BB) for good adaptation to warm milder climate, bloom period (BP), and vegetative period (VP), were determined using the Methodology of Identification of New Cultivars of Fruit Breeding (Ploudiv 1983). They were material with requirements of cold from 200 up to 650 (CH) when they underwent a test of controlled conditions of (CH). These materials are; AR-109 (200 CH), AR-106 (300 CH), AR-108 (300 CH), AR-147 (300 CH), AR-144 (550 CH), and AR-a60 (650 CH), while the control Mutant Aguanueva II (500 CH). Under winter conditions of the year 2000 with so slone 168.76 (CH), some materials showed a bud break superior to the control. The bud break dates understand between 30 days before the witness Aguanueva II, as the hybrid AR-147 and 34 days later in the case of the hybrid AR-151, location this way to the materials as: Early with regard to the control; AR-16-S (24 days), AR-130 (14 days) and AR-147 (30 days). Similar to the control; AR-144, AR-103 and AR-127. Later than the control; AR-111 and AR-103-B. since they don't require spray bud breaking res compounds for their bud break and they have bloom period (BP) of 8 to 21 days. And when presenting low chill requirements they will be set fruit in a microclimate frost-free and growing and have their cultivation in a mild winter climate.