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Dean A. Kopsell, David E. Kopsell, and Joanne Curran-Celentano

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil, and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among spices and herbal crops for xanthophyll carotenoids, which are associated with decreased risks of cancer and age-related eye diseases. The research goal for the current study was to characterize the concentrations of nutritionally important carotenoid pigments in popular varieties of basil. Eight cultivars of sweet basil (`Genovese', `Italian Large Leaf', `Nufar', `Red Rubin', `Osmin Purple', `Spicy Bush', `Cinnamon', and `Sweet Thai') were grown in both field and greenhouse environments and evaluated for plant pigments using HPLC methodology. Environmental and cultivar differences were observed for all of the pigments analyzed. `Sweet Thai' accumulated the highest concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene carotenoids in the field, while `Osmin Purple' accumulated the highest carotenoid concentrations in the greenhouse. Comparing the two environments, cultivar levels for carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments were higher in the field environment when expressed on both a fresh and dry weight basis. Exceptions were found only for the purple leaf basils (`Osmin Purple' and `Red Rubin'). Positive correlations existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in both environments. This study demonstrates sweet basil accumulates high levels of nutritionally important carotenoids in both field and greenhouse environments.

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V. Fernández-Ruiz, M.C. Sánchez-Mata, M. Cámara, M.E. Torija, C. Chaya, L. Galiana-Balaguer, S. Roselló, and F. Nuez

The characterization of Lycopersicon germplasm for internal quality properties is essential to choose suitable donor parents for breeding programs. When donor parents belong to species of subgenus Eulycopersicon, which are phyletically closer to L. esculentum Mill., the recovery of agronomic traits is faster. When using these materials, a careful selection of donor parents which could improve several internal quality properties allows the acceleration of these breeding programs. In this work, we combine general determinations, such as soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH, total sugars, pectic substances and total protein contents with precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), quantitations of individual compounds (vitamin C; citric, malic, fumaric and oxalic acids; glucose, fructose, and sucrose), in order to obtain a more complete characterization of flavor intensity and nutritional properties in Lycopersicon germplasm. The multidimensional analysis of all these variables allows classification of several accessions of L. esculentum Mill. and L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill., according to their usefulness for internal quality breeding programs of fresh tomato. The classification obtained and the comparison of accessions quality characteristics with selected controls show that five of the L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accessions tested can be of great usefulness for being used in breeding for internal quality characteristics. A flavor intensity ≈625% higher than commercial hybrids was obtained in the best accession tested. Some of these L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accessions showed better flavor intensity properties than a high SSC L. cheesmanii Riley control, traditionally used in internal quality breeding. In addition, three of the L. esculentum Mill. accessions tested with medium-to-high flavor intensity value could be useful in advanced stages of breeding programs.

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Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Fátima Medina-Lara, Yereni Minero-García, Luis W. Torres-Tapia, Sergio R. Peraza-Sánchez, and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

extracted using the method proposed by Collins et al. (1995) and modified by Estrada et al. (2002) . For the quantification of capsaicinoids, we used an Agilent Technologies 1200 Series high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Agilent Technologies

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Fan Zhang, Zi Wei, Peter Jeranyama, Carolyn DeMoranville, and Harvey J.M. Hou

, including spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics to examine cranberry leaves with yellow vine syndrome and normal cranberry leaves to provide novel insight into the underlying mechanism causing the

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Yunpeng Gao, Mingwei Zhu, Haoyu Wang, and Shuxian Li

chromatography (HPLC) grade] in a conical flask, which was covered with parafilm to prevent evaporation. An ultrasonic extraction was completed in 30 min with an ultrasonic cleaning bath at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C). The extract was filtered through a membrane

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Peter B. Ojong, Victor Njiti, Zibao Guo, Ming Gao, Samuel Besong, and Sandra L. Barnes

.45-μm mini-uniprep syringeless filter (Fisher-Scientific, Atlanta, GA). Three aliquots of 10 μL each were injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis of the flavonoid content. All solvents were HPLC grade (Sigma Aldrich

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Paul W. Bosland, Danise Coon, and Gregory Reeves

chile pepper extract at which heat can be detected by a human taste panel. Alternative instrumental methods have been developed since Scoville’s test. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the most accurate and efficient method ( Collins et al

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Satoru Motoki, Tianli Tang, Takumi Taguchi, Ayaka Kato, Hiromi Ikeura, and Tomoo Maeda

modification method of Maeda et al. (2010 , 2012 ) and Nikaido et al. (2014) . A high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC; Laboratory Solutions system; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD

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Thomas C. Koch and Irwin L. Goldman

Carotenoids and tocopherols are health-functional phytochemicals that occur in a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops. These two classes of compounds are synthesized from a common precursor, geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate, and are typically analyzed separately via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Because carotenoids and tocopherols are present in many edible horticultural crops, it would be advantageous to measure them simultaneously in plant tissues. Herein we report a one-pass reverse-phase HPLC method for extraction and analysis of carotenoids and tocopherols in carrot that can be extended to other high-moisture plant organs. Elution times ranged from 5 minutes for α-tocopherol to 24 minutes for β-carotene. This method improves the efficiency of analyzing these compounds by up to 50%, and should increase the efficiency of assessing carotenoid and tocopherol profiles in horticultural crops.

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S. Y. Wang, J. L. Maas, E. M. Daniel, and G. J. Galletta

Ellagic acid (EA) a naturally occurring polyphenol in many fruit and nut crops, is a putative inhibitor of certain chemically-induced cancers. Improved methods of extraction, detection and quantification are essential for accurate determination of EA for plant physiological and genetic studies and animal nutrition and chemopreventative studies. Column (C18) preconditioning significantly reduced column retention of EA. An ammonium phosphate/methanol solvent system was used in preference to sodium phosphate/methanol. Fruit sample determinations were 10-100 times higher than previously reported, due to the improvements in efficiency of these methods. EA levels (mg/g dry wt) were: strawberry pulp (1.55), achene (8.46), root (1.55), crown (3.32) and leaf (14.27); blackberry pulp (,2.43) and seed (3.37); and cranberry skin (1.06), pulp (0.31), seed (0.69), leaf (4.10).