Ninety-eight percent of the navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the US are processed. Thus, new cultivars considered for release must meet industry standards. Canning quality behaves as a classical QTL which precludes its selection and evaluation in early generations. Such delays add a measure of inefficiency to a breeding program. Indirect selection for canning quality using molecular markers could increase efficiency. RAPD markers are more useful than RFLP's, in Phaseolus, due to a simpler protocol and a higher level of polymorphism within genetically related cultivars. Three populations of RIL's, derived from crosses between cultivars with standard and sub-standard canning quality, were screened to identify markers associated with canning quality. Material for evaluation was grown at two locations, in three replications and processed, in the Food Science Processing Lab, following industry standards. Quality traits measured were: processed texture, color and appearance. Associations of putative markers with canning quality were identified using ANOVA and Mapmaker programs
Kimberly J Walters, George L. Hosfield, and James D. Kelly
Kristin Schneider and James D. Kelly
Common beans, considered sensitive to moisture stress, are an important commodity in developing countries such as the Mexican Highlands where intermittent drought conditions are prevalent during the growing season. The selection and development of high performing cultivars under drought stress is confounded by the quantitative nature of drought tolerance. To employ indirect selection in earlier generations, RAPD markers were identified that associated with QTLs controlling performance under drought stress. RAPD markers are preferred for use in Phaseolus vulgaris, over RFLPs, because they generate polymorphisms between genetically related germplasm. 48% of 620 arbitrary primers screened against three parents of two F6 derived recombinant inbred pinto populations were polymorphic for one or more bands. These polymorphisms were screened against RILs in each population and associations were determined using one-way ANOVAs and Mapmaker. Yield data used for determination of associations was collected over five years in MI and Mexico where both stress and non stress treatments were applied.
Arvazena E. Clardy, Sabrina L. Shaw, and William F. Hayslett
Red Delano chrysanthemum cuttings were transplanted into 15 cm pots. Fertilizer treatments were started immediately. Initial fertilizer rates were 14.8 cc of the designated formulation per pot. Two formulations of fertilizer, 20-20-20 and 5-50-17 NPK, were used in excessive rates to determine if it would override the effects of the growth inhibitors. Paclobutrazol, uniconizole, and daminozide were used to retard growth. Three rates-30, 60, and 120 ppm of paclobutrazol, and 10, 20, and 40 ppm of uniconizole and one rate of 25 % daminozide were foliar applied (two applications) on the plants. After two weeks the plants were treated with the growth retardants and an additional treatment of fertilizer were added at the rate of 29.6 cc per pot. Measurements taken were plant height, top fresh weight, root fresh weight, and root development. ANOVA was used to determine differences and interactions. Significant differences were noted in plant height and root development.
Debra Guenther and Frank Stonaker
The Specialty Crops Program at Colorado State University conducted research of hardneck garlic (Allium sativum ophioscorodon) production on certified organic land at the Horticulture Field Research Center northeast of Fort Collins, Colo., during the garlic growing seasons of 2002–03 and 2003–04. Winter mulches and irrigation treatments were studied during the first season. It was found that garlic that was covered by any type of winter mulch (grass hay, single or double layers of floating row cover) resulted in better yields (higher average bulb weight) than garlic which was not covered at all (ANOVA, F = 2.93, P = 0.034). Yields from sprinkler and furrow irrigation were essentially the same; however, furrow irrigation used nearly 30% more water. Too little water was applied to the drip-irrigated treatment and yield suffered. Our findings suggest that yields are negatively impacted when less than 12 inches of combined precipitation and irrigation are received. During the second season, clove planting spacings of 3, 4.5, and 6 inches, and flame weeding and scape removal effects on yields were studied. The bulbs that grew at a 6-inch spacing were significantly larger than those grown at 3 and 4.5 inches (ANOVA, F = 46.5, P < 0.001). Flame weeding had no significant effects on yields (t-test, P = 0.6) and may be more economical compared to hand weeding depending on fuel costs. Removing the scapes did result in slightly higher bulb weights (t-test, P = 0.06). Removing scapes takes extra labor and may not be worth the time for only slightly higher bulb weights; however, selling the edible scapes may offset the cost and generate extra income.
Tae-Ho Han, Herman J. van Eck, Marjo J. De Jeu, and Evert Jacobsen
An F1 population, derived from an intraspecific cross between two Alstroemeria aurea accessions, was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in ornamental and morphological characteristics. One QTL for leaf length was mapped on linkage group three of both parents near marker E+ACCT/M+CGCA-I165 explaining 20% and 14.8% phenotypic variation. Two putative QTL were detected on leaf width on A002-3 and A002-6. One QTL and three putative QTL, involved in the leaf length/width ratio were identified accounting for 46.7% of the phenotypic variance in total. Significant interaction was observed between two QTL, S+AC/M+ACT-I162 and S+AC/M+AGA-I465 in a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). For the main color of the flower one QTL and putative QTL accounted for up to 60% of phenotypic variance suggesting simple genetic control of flower color. A two-way ANOVA of these QTL suggested an epistatic interaction. A QTL was detected for color of the inner side of outer lateral tepal with 26.5% of the phenotypic variance explained. This QTL was also associated with main color of the flower just below the 95% threshold value. Two QTL were detected with the Kruskal-Wallis test for the tip color of inner lateral tepal near QTL for other flower color traits. Consequently flower color traits were significantly correlated. A QTL and a putative QTL for the flower size was mapped near marker E+ACCG/M+CGCT-I193 and E+ACCG/M+CGCG-197, respectively. One putative QTL was detected for the stripe width of the inner lateral tepal.
Ann Marie Connor, James J. Luby, and Cindy B.S. Tong
Variation in antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPH), and total anthocyanin content (ACY) was examined in 1998 and 1999 in fruit of 52 (49 blue-fruited and 3 pink-fruited) genotypes from a blueberry breeding population. The species ancestry included Vaccinium corymbosum L. (northern highbush blueberry), V. angustifolium Ait. (lowbush blueberry), V. constablaei Gray (mountain highbush blueberry), V. ashei Reade (rabbiteye blueberry), and V. myrtilloides Michx. (lowbush blueberry). Using a methyl linoleate oxidation assay (MeLO) on acidified methanolic extracts of the berries, a 5-fold variation was found in AA in 1998 and a 3-fold variation in 1999 among the blue-fruited genotypes. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed variation among genotypes (P < 0.0001) in single and combined years, regardless of inclusion of pink-fruited selections and adjustment for berry size. While mean AA of all genotypes did not change between the 2 years, ranking of some genotypes for AA changed significantly between 1998 and 1999. Of the 10 genotypes that demonstrated the highest AA in 1998, four were among the 10 genotypes that demonstrated highest AA in 1999. Similarly, of the 15 genotypes with the highest AA, 10 were the same both years. As with AA, mean TPH of all genotypes did not change between years and ANOVA demonstrated genotypic variation regardless of adjustment for berry size/weight or exclusion of pink-fruited selections. Changes in genotype rank occurred between years. The difference in TPH between lowest- and highest-ranking blue-fruited genotypes was ≈2.6-fold in both 1998 and 1999. Seven of the 10 highest-ranking genotypes were the same both years and TPH correlated with AA (r = 0.92, P < 0.01) on a genotype mean basis for combined years. ACY correlated less well with AA (r = 0.73, P < 0.01 for combined years). When genotypes were categorized into six groups according to species ancestry, V. myrtilloides and V. constablaei × V. ashei crosses ranked highest and second highest, respectively, for AA in both years. The groups comprised of V. corymbosum genotypes, V. angustifolium genotypes, and those with both V. corymbosum and V. angustifolium in their lineage were indistinguishable from each other. Samples from some of the genotypes were analyzed for oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and these aqueous-based antioxidant assays correlated well with the lipid emulsion-based MeLO (all r ≥ 0.90, P < 0.01). The three antioxidant assays may be equally useful for screening in a blueberry breeding program and the choice of assay may depend on the goal of the program and the resources available.
Rodomiro Ortiz and Dirk Vuylsteke
Two multilocational trials, one comprising 18 Musa clones in three locations and another of 20 genotypes across 11 locations, were set up in 1991 and 1992, respectively, to assess the genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) for important traits and to select stable high-yielding and black sigatoka (BS)-resistant genotypes. Combined ANOVAs showed significant differences among environments and among genotypes for all traits. GxE affected all growth and yield parameters, except fruit girth. Host response to BS disease also showed significant GxE, but there was no cross-order season-by-year interaction. Hence, genotypic response to BS can be assessed in 1 year during the rainy season, when disease pressure is highest. Genotype-by-location effects were more important than the nonsignificant genotype-by-year effects, supporting the need for multilocational trials. Stability analysis showed that full-sib plantain hybrids (TMPx1) exhibited different host responses to BS as well as different interaction patterns, suggesting that selection for stable BS resistance is possible. The BS-resistant TMPx genotypes had higher yields than the plantain landraces, but showed differences in yield stability. TMPx 1658-4, 2796-5, 5511-2, and 6930-1 have been selected as stable high-yielding hybrids, while the initial best selections (TMPx 548-4 and 548-9) were top yielders only in good environments. [Vuylsteke, D., R. Swennen, and R. Ortiz. 1993. Registration of 14 improved tropical Musa plantain hybrids with black sigatoka resistance. HortScience 28:957–959.]
Leigh K. Hawkins, Fenny Dane, Tom Kubisiak, Bill Rhodes, and Bob Jarrett
A linkage map was constructed of the watermelon genome using F2 and F2:3 populations segregating for resistance to race 1 and 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON 1 and 2). Sixty-four percent of the RAPD primers used in the parents and F1 detected polymorphism. In the F2, 143 polymorphic bands were scored, 60% of which exhibited the expected 3:1 segregation ratio. A 113 cM linkage map was constructed using Mapmaker version 3 and LOD of 4. DNA pools of Fusarium wilt resistant or susceptible F2:3 lines were created and bulked segregant analysis was used to detect molecular markers linked to FON 1 or FON 2 resistance. Four individuals per line were used to confirm linkages and construct an F2:3 linkage map. One large linkage group was detected in both generations. A large proportion of the RAPD and SSR markers were unlinked and many showed segregation distortion. Single-factor ANOVA for each pairwise combination of marker locus and resistance or morphological trait was conducted. RAPD markers with putative linkages to FON 1 and FON 2 and several morphological traits were detected.
John D. Downes
Animal waste disposal from large operations is an increasing problem, and its value as a fertilizer needs to be determined. Strip tests often are unreplicated creating problems in analysis. In an unreplicated Georgia farm test involving a three manure (0, 1, 2 loads/acre) × 3 N (0, 70, 90 lb/acre) factorial on corn yield from the control plot was not included, making n = 8, and precluding the usual ANOVA and means comparisons. Partial budget analysis is compared to regression analysis and economic evaluation at varying input costs and corn prices. Best estimates were obtained by finding the N equivalent of manure [(56.4 lb N)/load] and regressing yield on sum of N (Nf + Nm), which estimated Y = –14.0 + 1.1724N – 0.00324NN, RR = .982, F = 136.38, P > F =.000, sye = 3.0 bushel/acre, from which Nmax = 181, Ymax = 92.1 bushel/acre. Nopt varied from 139 to 172 bushel/acre with cost N varying from $0.14/lb (manure cost) to $0.40/lb, and corn prices from $1.50 to $2.50/bushel. Manure thus valued at 16.92 per load when costing $8.00, assuming 56.4 lbs/load N. Major point was estimation N equivalent of manure from yield effects and then regression yield on N. Equation easily converted to one in M.
Stephen B. Gaul, Eric D. Nelson, and Michael R. Evans
Rooted cuttings of 22 different Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch cultivars were grown in root substrate inoculated with 0, 5000,15,000, and 30,000 oospores of Pyuthium ultimum Trow per 10-cm containers. The root substrate was a mixture of 50% peat, 30% perlite, and 20% soil, adjusted to a pH 5.5. Plants were grown in a greenhouse with a temperature range of 15-32 °C, and were fertilized daily with 200 ppm N (Excel 15-5-15, Scotts Co. Marietta, Ga). After 8 weeks, roots were rated for disease incidence and root fresh and dry weights were determined. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with six blocks in a 22 × 4 factorial design, linear regression, and cluster analysis. Significant differences among the responses of the cultivars were found. The slopes of the regression equations, using the log10 of the inoculum level for the X axis, were more positive for disease incidence and more negative for fresh and dry root weights in the more susceptble cultivars. The cultivars were separated, by the cluster analysis, into three groups, less susceptible, moderately susceptible, and highly susceptible. Cultivars Marblestar and Galaxy Red were representative of less susceptible, `Pepride' and `Jolly Red' were representative of moderately susceptible, and `Snowcap' and `Success' were representative of highly susceptible cultivars.