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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Karen E. Koch, and Frederick S. Davies

enhancement with 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole) ( Alferez et al., 2006 ). Gibberellic acid maintained sucrose gradients in the peel. An intriguing aspect of the GA 3 response observed here was that the consistent reduction in sucrose depletion

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Muhammad Farooq, Masoud Salyani, and Jodie D. Whitney

Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of sprayer type, airflow rate, and nozzle output on deposition of active ingredient and mechanical harvesting of `Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis). Fruit detachment force (FDF) and percentage of fruit removal (PFR) by trunk shaker were used as mechanical harvesting parameters. A PowerBlast sprayer discharging radially and a Titan sprayer discharging over the entire canopy were used. The spray mixture contained an abscission chemical (CMN-pyrazole), a surfactant (Kinetic) and a fluorescent tracer (Pyranine-10G). Deposition was determined at three different heights outside and inside of the canopy. With the PowerBlast, higher airflow and lower nozzle output reduced deposition of the active ingredient. The mean FDF of sprayed treatments was less than that of the non-sprayed control but the difference among the four spray treatments was not significant. The lower airflow rate with lower nozzle output had higher PFR than that of the control. With the Titan sprayer, the mean deposition at lower airflow was similar to or higher than the higher airflow. At higher airflow, the lower nozzle output gave higher mean deposition. The Titan sprayer treatments resulted in less FDF than the control. At both airflow rates, the FDF was less at lower nozzle output than at higher nozzle output. The PFR of these treatments were not different from that of control.

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Kelly T. Morgan, Smita Barkataky, Davie Kadyampakeni, Robert Ebel, and Fritz Roka

-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP)] and harvested with a trunk shaker at low speed and hand-harvesting did not reduce yield the next year. However, the use of CMNP and trunk shakers at high speed was found to reduce following-year yields in the same study

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Eliezer E. Goldschmidt

-loosening chemicals. Recent research by Burns and coworkers has focused on CMNP (5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole) as a promising fruit-loosening agent ( Alferez et al., 2007 ). High concentrations of 2,4-D are applied in the packing house, often together with GA

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Karthik-Joseph John-Karuppiah and Jacqueline K. Burns

J. Expt. Bot. 53 2039 2055 Alferez, F. Singh, S. Umbach, A.L. Hockema, B. Burns, J.K. 2005 Citrus abscission and arabidopsis plant decline in response to 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1 H