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Diane Feliciano Cayanan, Ping Zhang, Weizhong Liu, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

). Even with fungicide use, there is no completely effective treatment of Rhizoctonia solani ( Johnson and Leach, 2006 ) and Fusarium oxysporum ( Reuveni et al., 2002 ). Several disinfection techniques have been studied for their efficacy in minimize

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Eric Watkins and William A. Meyer

Recently, turfgrass breeders have developed many improved turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars. Due to the large number of cultivars currently available to turfgrass managers and researchers, we have classified turf-type tall fescue cultivars into six groups based primarily on several morphological measurements. This type of classification is important for turfgrass breeders because many breeding decisions are made based on observations in a spaced-plant nursery. The major objective of this study was to classify tall fescue cultivars and selections based on spaced-plant measurements and to then compare those results with turf performance. A spaced-plant nursery consisting of 36 cultivars and selections was established in September 1998 at Adelphia, N.J. Plant height, panicle length, flag leaf width and length, subtending leaf width and length, and subtending internode length were measured 10 days after anthesis in 1999 and 2000. Additionally, a turf trial was established at North Brunswick, N.J., that included the same 36 cultivars and selections. The turf plots were evaluated for several traits including overall turfgrass quality, density, and susceptibility to brown patch disease. Based on principal component analysis of morphological measurements, along with turf trial data, all cultivars and selections were assigned to one of six groups: forage, early-standard, standard, early semi-dwarf, semi-dwarf, and dwarf. In turf plots, the semi-dwarf, early-semi dwarf, and dwarf groups were the top-performing types in terms of overall turfgrass quality, and the forage and early-standard cultivars had the lowest overall quality ratings. The dwarf types did not perform well under summer stress, especially in terms of brown patch disease incidence. The results of this study suggest that when developing cultivars for higher maintenance situations, turf-type tall fescue breeders should focus on the development of semi-dwarf cultivars.

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Jonathan M. Bokmeyer, Stacy A. Bonos, and William A. Meyer

( Beard, 1973 ). The most devastating disease of tall fescue is brown patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Brown patch can reduce the overall quality and aesthetics of the turf stand ( Couch, 1985 ; Martin and Lucas, 1984 ) and reduce stand density

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Ramsey Sealy, Michael R. Evans, and Craig Rothrock

formation by Rhizoctonia solani and killed the organism when hyphal discs were exposed to the oil in a petri plate assay. They concluded that the inhibition of sclerotia was in part the result of the inhibition of hyphal growth. Singh et al. (1990) found

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D. Grant McCarty II, Sarah E. Eichler Inwood, Bonnie H. Ownley, Carl E. Sams, Annette L. Wszelaki, and David M. Butler

concern. Blok et al. (2000) reported that incorporated amendments (i.e., labile C source) and mulching with a polyethylene film were both necessary for mortality of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn inoculum. Similarly, Goud et

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Alexis K. Nagel, Guido Schnabel, Cesar Petri, and Ralph Scorza

Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Valsa ambiens, Gibberella zeae, Ganoderma lucidum, Botrytis cinerea , and Pyricularia oryzeae ( Hu and Huang, 1994 ). Additionally, GAFP was able to provide resistance to the ascomycete fungus

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Xiuling Tian and Youbin Zheng

biocontrol agents for wilt disease of kidney bean caused by Fusarium oxysporum Intl. J. Agr. Biol. 6 310 316 El-Tarabily, K.A. 2004 Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani diseases of sugar beet by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting yeasts J. Appl

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Sujatha Sankula, Mark J. VanGessel, Walter E. Kee Jr., C. Edward Beste, and Kathryne L. Everts

Potential increases in the yield of agronomic crops through enhanced light interception have led many growers to consider using narrow rows in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). However, no information is available on how narrow row spacing affects weed management or fits into an integrated pest management strategy. To address this, field studies were conducted in Delaware and Maryland in 1996 and 1997 to evaluate the effects of row spacing (38 vs. 76 cm) on weed control, and on yield and quality of lima bean. Weed management inputs were also evaluated with labeled or reduced pre-emergence rates of metolachlor plus imazethapyr applied broadcast or banded. Only 76-cm rows were cultivated according to the standard practice for this production system. In general, row spacing, herbicide rate, and herbicide application method had no effect on lima bean biomass or yield, on weed density, control, or biomass production, or on economic return. However, weed control consistency was improved when wide rows were used, even with reduced herbicide rates, possibly because of cultivation. Using reduced herbicide rates and band applications resulted in 84% less herbicide applied without affecting weed control. Chemical names used: 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1Himidazol-2-yl]-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazethapyr); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); 2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Jeffrey F. Derr, David McCall, Brandon Horvath, and Adam D. Nichols

.L. Vencill, W.K. 2003 Effect of brown patch (caused by Rhizoctonia solani ) control on preemergence herbicide efficacy in tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ) Weed Technol. 17 747 750 Gross, M.K. Santini, J.B. Tikhonova, I. Latin, R. 1998 The influence of

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Julie R. Kikkert, Stephen Reiners, and Beth K. Gugino

species grown in dense stands develop more severe disease symptoms ( Burdon and Chilvers, 1982 ; Zentmyer and Bald, 1977 ). Wirestem in New York is caused primarily by Rhizoctonia solani ; however, Pythium ultimum and Phoma betae also can cause