In the Northeast, wild American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) is typically found growing in the dense shade provided by deciduous hardwood tree species such as a sugar maple, in slightly acidic soils with relatively high calcium content. Woods cultivated ginseng is often grown in forest farming agroforestry systems under similar conditions. Supplemental calcium by soil incorporation of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is often recommended for woods cultivated ginseng. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this practice on soil chemical properties, plant growth and quality of American ginseng. In a greenhouse pot culture experiment, 2-year-old seedlings were treated with 0, 2, 4, 8, or 16 Mt·ha–1 gypsum and grown for 12 weeks. Gypsum application decreased soil pH slightly, elevated soil electrical conductivity and increased available soil Ca and sulfate concentrations. Tissue calcium concentration was increased with by gypsum treatment, but shoot and root growth was reduced. HPLC analysis of root ginsenosides revealed that Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rb2, PT ginsenoside (sum of ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd) and total ginsenoside concentration increased by gypsum soil amendment.
Jin Wook Lee and Kenneth W. Mudge
Jin Wook Lee*, Kenneth W. Mudge, Wansang Lim, and Joseph Lardner
Woods cultivation of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) can generate income for forest land owners and decrease collection pressure on wild populations of this increasingly scarce forest herb. For woods cultivation, supplemental calcium by soil application of gypsum (CaSO4 2H2 O) is often recommended, but the effects of this practice on soil characteristics, plant growth and quality of American ginseng are not well characterized. In a greenhouse pot culture experiment, 3-year-old seedlings were treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Mt/ha gypsum and grown for 12 weeks. Gypsum application decreased soil pH slightly and elevated soil electrical conductivity and available soil calcium. Tissue levels of calcium were not affected by gypsum treatment but a significant increase in both shoot and root dry weight occurred. Total ginsenosides, which are the pharmacologically active components of ginseng, were increased slightly in roots but not in shoots of plants treated with 4 Mt/ha gypsum. Rb1, the most abundant ginsenoside in roots, was elevated in roots of plants treated with 3 Mt/ha gypsum. Ginsenoside Rg1 was elevated in shoots of plants treated with 2 Mt/ha gypsum. Regardless of gypsum treatment, qualitative differences (relative concentrations of different ginsenosides) between roots and shoots were observed.
Jong Chul Lee, Bernadine C. Strik, and John T.A. Proctor
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) roots have a dormancy period which can be satisfied by exposure to low temperatures of 0° to 10°C for about 100 days. Three-year-old roots of ginseng were weighed, given variable periods (≥ 50 days) of low temperature (5°C), planted in vermiculite in pots, and grown in light or dark at 5°, 10°, 15°, or 20°. After 50 to 100 days of storage at 5°, stem growth occurred at all temperatures except 20°. At this temperature, a minimum of 75 days at 5° was required to satisfy dormancy. Stem growth rate was relatively constant at 5° and 10° but increased with storage time when grown at 15° or 20°; leaf growth rate was affected similarly, except that no leaf growth occurred at 5°. If optimum cold storage and growth requirements were not met, the plants appeared abnormal and had reduced root dry weights. After 100 days of storage, the greatest growth rate was observed at 15° and 10°. Plant growth rate was the least at 5° and 20°.
T.R. Konsler, T.J. Monaco, T.J. Sheets, and R.B. Leidy
Single and multiple applications of 2,4-D to American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) with fully expanded leaves during a 3-year period caused no visible injury to foliage or roots. During the final 2 years of the study, percent plant survival was greater with two applications per year than with one, and percent gain in root weight decreased with increased rate of application of the herbicide. Also, terminal weight of roots decreased with increased number of years of herbicide application. Treated plants did not differ from nontreated plants in percent survival, final root weight, or percent gain in root weight. Herbicide residue was not detected (<0.02 ppm) in roots from plants that received multiple applications of the three highest 2,4-D dosages: 0.56, 1.12, or 2.24 kg·ha−1 a.i. Foliar residues were detected in plants treated once or twice per year for 3 years with 0.56 or 1.12 kg·ha−1 a.i. 2,4-D. Chemical name used: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D).
Samuel G. Obae, Hillar Klandorf, and Todd P. West
cultivation methods on ginsenoside content of wild American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) J. Agr. Food Chem. 53 8498 8505 Mathur, A. Mathur, A.K. Sangwan, R.S. Gangwar, A. Uniyal, G.C. 2003 Differential morphogenetic response, ginsenoside metabolism and RADP
Jinwook Lee and Kenneth W. Mudge
.A. Reynolds, L.B. Hendel, J.G. 1996 Influence of root age on the concentration of ginsenosides of american ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) Can. J. Plant Sci. 76 853 855 10.4141/cjps96-144 Dong, T.T.X. Cui, X.M. Song, Z.H. Zhao, K.J. Ji, Z.N. Lo, C.K. Tsim, K
Kagiso Given Shadung, Phatu William Mashela, and Maboko Samuel Mphosi
011573d Du, X.W. Wills, R.B.K. Stuart, D.L. 2003 Changes in neutral and malonyl ginsenosides in American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) during drying, storage and ethanolic extraction Food Chem. 86 155 159 Faridah, Q.Z. Abdelmageed, A.H.A. Nor, H
Andrew L. Thomas, Richard J. Crawford Jr, George E. Rottinghaus, John K. Tracy, Wendy L. Applequist, Besa E. Schweitzer, Larry J. Havermann, Scott F. Woodbury, James S. Miller, Mark R. Ellersieck, and Dean E. Gray
ginsenoside content of American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium L.) Acta Hort. 629 161 166 Panossian, A. Danielyan, A. Mamikonyan, G. Wikman, G. 2004 Methods of phytochemical standardisation of rhizoma
Benjamin K. Hoover and R.M. Bates
) and ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium ) plants ( Hill and Hausbeck, 2005 ). Mefenoxam is recommended for control of PRR in North Carolina ( Sidebottom and Jones, 2004 ) and has been shown to have mixed effectiveness against P. cinnamomi ( Benson et al