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David C. Zlesak

intermediate. Podosphaera aphanis var. physocarpi only infects ninebark (the others are generalists), and plants infected with this fungal species often display witchesbrooms covered in mycelium (i.e., thickened, stunted stem and leaf growth at the

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Shengrui Yao

or neighbors. Pests and Diseases The dominant jujube diseases in China are witches-broom and fruit splitting/cracking. Witches-broom is widespread in jujube-producing areas in China, Korea, and Japan ( Guo and Shan, 2010 ; Jung et al., 2003 ; Zhou

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Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards

). Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum ) is a wild relative of cacao that exhibits resistance to specific isolates of witchesbroom disease ( Moniliophthora perniciosa ). Hybrid populations between cacao and cupuassu are being developed as part of a genetic

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Myounghai Kwak, Jeong-Ki Hong, Eun Sil Lee, Byoung Yoon Lee, Min Hwan Suh, and Bert Cregg

gene result in marked phenotypic changes. For example, a single somatic mutation in Pinus sibirica causes nonpathological witchesbroom ( Grasso, 1969 ; Duffield and Wheat, 1963; Zhuk et al., 2015 ); however, it may be challenging to use molecular

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Ricardo Goenaga, Heber Irizarry, and Brian Irish

( International Cocoa Germplasm Database, 2008 ) such as black pod disease ( Phytophthora spp.), witches broom ( Moniliophthora perniciosa ), and vascular streak dieback ( Oncobasidium theobromae ) and were of frequent use in breeding programs at CATIE

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Alan T. Whittemore and Alden M. Townsend

. Use of hackberries as landscape trees has been limited by susceptibility to several pathogens. Hackberries are susceptible to witchesbrooms [incited by a mite ( Eriophyes Siebold) and a powdery mildew ( Sphaerotheca phytoptophila Kellerm. & Swingle

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Shengrui Yao, Junxin Huang, and Robert Heyduck

had similar fruit shape. ‘Xingguang’ is a witches-broom resistant strain from ‘Junzao’ ( Liu et al., 2006 ), whereas ‘Lang’ in the United States may not be the same cultivar as ‘Lang’ in China now. ‘Don Polenski’ had smaller flowers than ‘Lang

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Andrea Swanberg and Wenhao Dai

leaves, witches-broom appearance, and phyllody, resulting in reduced crop yield and plant death ( Lee et al., 2000 ). One phytoplasma disease, called X-disease, causes severe damage on many Prunus species such as sweet and sour cherries, peach

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Binoy Babu, Gary Knox, Mathews L. Paret, and Francisco M. Ochoa-Corona

disease are highly variable and depend on the rose cultivar, growth stage, and environmental conditions ( Windham et al., 2014a , 2014b ). Some of the symptoms include excessive thorniness, witchesbroom, red pigmentation which does not disappear as the

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Fenfen Yan, Zhiguo Liu, Mengjun Liu, Xingjuan Zheng, Zhi Luo, and Jiurui Wang

-sterile germplasm sources JMS1 and JMS2 were used as the female parents, and two cultivars, Jiao5 (with high resistance to witchesbroom disease) and Wuhefeng (with stoneless fruit), and one sour jujube ( Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu, ancestor close relative