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Ursula K. Schuch, Anita N. Miller, and Leslie H. Fuchigami

Dormant coffee (Coffea arabica L.) flower buds require water stress to stimulate regrowth. A xylem specific watersoluble dye, azosulfamide, was used to quantify the uptake of water by buds after their release from dormancy by withholding water. In non-stressed flower buds, the rate of water uptake was generally slower and variable. In stressed flower buds, the rate of uptake tripled from one day to 3 days after rewatering and preceded the doubling of fresh and dry weight of buds. Free, ester, and amide IAA levels of developing flower buds were measured by GCMS-SIM using an isotope dilution technique with [13C6] IAA as an internal standard. Throughout development, the majority of IAA was present in a conjugated form and the dominant form was amide IAA. The proportions of amide and free IAA changed rapidly after plants were water stressed until day 3, and preceded the doubling of fresh and dry weight. Correlation coefficients of 0.9, 0.7, and 0.7 (p<0.l) were found between auxin content and fresh weight, dry weight, and rate of water uptake, respectively.

Open access

Roger H. Young and Stephen M. Garnsey

Abstract

Sweet orange cultivars, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, in several stages of blight (young tree decline) were studied for characteristics of waterflow or uptake. Many small and major roots and the trunk on moderately blighted trees had restricted waterflow or uptake capabilities. Some small and major roots on the blighted side of early-stage or sectored trees also had restricted waterflow or uptake capabilities, but the healthy side roots functioned similarly to those on healthy trees. Dye uptake patterns confirmed that the waterflow or uptake was restricted in the diseased portions of the trees. On moderately blighted trees, young xylem appeared to be more functional for water movement than older xylem. Necrotic roots were found on the blighted side of early-stage sectored trees and moderately blighted trees, but not on the healthy side of sectored trees or on healthy trees. The sectoring type of early blight expression affords a model system for study whereby both blighted and apparently healthy tissues occur on the same tree.

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Marco Beyer and Moritz Knoche

Rain-induced cracking of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit is thought to be related to water absorption through the fruit surface. Conductance for water uptake (gtot. uptake) through the fruit surface of `Sam' sweet cherry was studied gravimetrically by monitoring water penetration from a donor solution of deionized water through segments of the outer pericarp into a polyethyleneglycol (PEG) containing receiver solution. Segments consisting of cuticle plus five to eight cell layers of epidermal and hypodermal tissue were mounted in stainless steel diffusion cells. Conductance was calculated from flow rates of water across the segment and the difference in osmotic potential between donor and receiver solution. Flow rates were constant up to 12 hours and decreased thereafter. A log normal distribution of gtot. uptake was observed with a median of 0.97 × 10-7 m·s-1. Further, gtot. uptake was not affected by storage duration (up to 71 days) of fruit used as a source of segments, thickness of segments (range 0.1 to 4.8 mm), or segment area exposed in the diffusion cell. Osmolality of the receiver solution in the range from 1140 to 3400 mmol·kg-1 had no effect on gtot. uptake (1.45 ± 0.42 × 10-7 m·s-1), but gtot. uptake increased by 301% (4.37 ± 0.46 × 10-7 m·s-1) at 300 mmol·kg-1. gtot. uptake was highest in the stylar scar region of the fruit (1.44 ± 0.16 × 10-7 m·s-1) followed by cheek (1.02 ±0.21 × 10-7 m·s-1), suture (0.57 ±0.17 × 10-7 m·s-1) and pedicel cavity regions (0.22 ±0.09 × 10-7 m·s-1). Across regions, gtot. uptake was related positively to stomatal density. Extracting total cuticular wax by dipping fruit in chloroform/methanol increased gtot. uptake from 1.18 ± 0.23 × 10-7 m·s-1 to 2.58 ± 0.41 × 10-7 m·s-1, but removing epicuticular wax by cellulose acetate stripping had no effect (1.59 ± 0.28 × 10-7 m·s-1). Water flux increased with increasing temperature (range 20 to 45 °C). Conductance differed between cultivars with `Hedelfinger' sweet cherry having the highest gtot. uptake (2.81 ± 0.26 × 10-7 m·s-1), followed by `Namare' (2.68 ± 0.26 × 10-7 m·s-1), `Kordia' (0.96 ± 0.14 × 10-7 m·s-1), `Sam' (0.87 ± 0.15 × 10-7 m·s-1), and `Adriana' (0.33 ± 0.02 × 10-7 m·s-1). The diffusion cell system described herein may be useful in analyzing conductance in water uptake through the fruit surface of sweet cherry and its potential relevance for fruit cracking.

Open access

I. Gergely, R. F. Korcak, and M. Faust

Abstract

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced water stress in nutrient solutions decreased both water consumption and 45Ca uptake by apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) The decrease in water uptake was more severe than the decrease in 45Ca uptake. When 45Ca uptake was calculated on the basis of water consumption, it was found that 45Ca uptake was not dependent on water uptake although water was necessary for movement of 45Ca. In split-root experiments, PEG and 45Ca were either applied to the same half of the root or to separate halves. Calcium uptake decreased in plants subjected to water stress. The results indicated that the site of this decrease was at the root, not the aerial portion of the plant which, indirectly, may affect root function and thus 45Ca uptake. Split-root experiments also indicated that the unstressed half of the root cannot fully compensate for the stressed half of the root in either water or 45Ca uptake. Water use of plants with half of their root under a −5.0 bar water stress was decreased by 30%. Urea-nitrogen pretreatment did not modify the effect of osmotic stress on leaf Ca, Mg and K concentrations, water use or dry matter production during the period of applied water stress. All these parameters decreased with increasing solution osmotic stress.

Free access

Martin P.N. Gent and Richard J. McAvoy

an ebb and flow cycle in as short as 4 min. This short cycle restricts water uptake. From here on we refer to this short cycle irrigation process as the partial saturation ebb and flow watering (PSEFW). There are numerous benefits that could derive

Open access

Melanie F. Haber, Eric Young, and M. Faust

Abstract

Polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000)-induced water stress (—0.5 to —7.5 bars) reduced shoot and root growth, water use, and stem 45Ca in seedlings of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Sucrose feeding through a leaf did not affect stem 45Ca with or without osmotic stress. 45Calcium uptake per milligram water used was not different at different solution osmotic potentials. A split-root study, with half the root system receiving 45Ca and/or PEG, showed that if 45Ca was supplied only to the water-stressed root half, 45Ca uptake into stems was low regardless of whether the other root half was stressed or not. Results indicate that reduced stem Ca during water stress is probably not a direct result of decreased root energy needed for active uptake or reduced translocation out of the root. Calcium absorption appeared to be related to the amount of unsuberized root surface available for Ca uptake.

Open access

W. J. Carpenter and H. P. Rasmussen

Abstract

The rate of absorption of distilled water by individual ‘Forever Yours’ cut roses was measured in continuous light (720 ft-c) and total darkness. Maximum water uptake in light (1.5 to 3.5 ml/hour) was found 24 to 48 hour (hr) after harvest followed by a gradual decline, while the lower (0.18 to 0.47 ml/hour) uptake in the dark persisted during the 120 hour study. Alternating 12 hour light and dark periods for 120 hours in a second study showed absorption rates change rapidly from light to dark or dark to light exposure. Statistical correlations were made among cut rose morphological parts and the rate of water uptake. Leaf area was found to be the factor most closely associated with water uptake in both light and dark. Anatomical studies revealed overall tissue degradation in rose stems kept in distilled water 5 days.

Full access

Ronald B. Sorensen and Tim L. Jones

We acknowledge Salopek 6U Farms for supplying the test site, farm equipment, water, and fertilizer to conduct this research. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations

Free access

Marco Beyer, Stefanie Peschel, Moritz Knoche, and Manfred Knörgen

Water uptake in different regions of the sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. cv. Sam) was investigated following selective application of silicone sealant to the pedicel end, pedicel cavity, pedicel/fruit juncture, or stylar scar of detached fruit. The time course of water uptake was monitored gravimetrically during a 3-hour incubation period in deionized water (20 °C). Sealing the pedicel end and/or pedicel/fruit juncture significantly reduced rates and total amount (3 hours) of water uptake, but sealing the stylar scar had no effect. The amount of water penetrating via the pedicel/fruit juncture increased between 50 and 85 days after full bloom. During the same period the maximum force required to detach pedicels from fruit (fruit removal force) fell from 5.2 ± 0.5 to 2.1 ± 0.2 N. The amount of water penetrating via the pedicel/fruit juncture and the fruit removal force were negatively related. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of mature fruit incubated in D2O indicated that D2O accumulated in the pedicel cavity region and the pedicel. Our data suggest that the pedicel end and pedicel/fruit juncture, but not the stylar scar, are regions of preferential water uptake in detached fruit. Chemical name used: deuterium oxide (D2O).

Free access

Dimitrios Savvas, Gerasimos Meletiou, Spiridoula Margariti, Ioannis Tsirogiannis, and Anastasios Kotsiras

In a completely closed hydroponic system, Na and Cl commonly accumulate in the root zone, at rates depending on the concentration of NaCl in the irrigation water (rate of Na and Cl inlet) and the Na to water and Cl to water ratios at which they are taken up by the plants (rates of Na and Cl outlet). However, while the concentration of NaCl in the irrigation water is commonly a constant, the Na to water and Cl to water uptake ratios are variables depending on the concentrations of Na and Cl in the root zone and, hence, on the rates of their accumulation. To quantify this feed-back relationship, a differential equation was established, relating the rate of Na (or Cl) accumulation to the rate of water uptake. This equation was solved according to the classical Runge-Kutta numerical method using data originating from a cucumber experiment, which was conducted in a fully automated, closed-loop hydroponic installation. Four different NaCl concentrations in the irrigation water, 0.8, 5, 10 and 15 mm, were applied as experimental treatments. The theoretically calculated curves followed a convex pattern, with an initially rapid increase of the Na and Cl concentrations in the root zone and a gradual leveling out as the cumulative water consumption was rising. This was ascribed to the gradual approaching of the Na to water and Cl to water outlet ratios via plant uptake, which were increasing as NaCl was accumulating in the root zone, to the constant NaCl to water inlet ratio (NaCl concentration in irrigation water). The model could predict the measured Na and Cl concentrations in the drainage water more accurately at 10 and 15 mm NaCl than at 0.8 and 5 mm NaCl in the irrigation water. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. Plant growth and water uptake were restricted as salinity was increasing, following a reverse pattern to that of Na and Cl accumulation in the root zone. The leaf K, Mg and P concentrations were markedly restricted by the increasing salinity, while that of Ca was less severely affected.