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Hiroko Hamada, Keisuke Nonaka, Terutaka Yoshioka, and Masahiko Yamada

repetition, tree or vine replication, and fruit sample size. Estimates of h B 2 of traits, which is the ratio of genetic variance to phenotypic variance, are also important for breeders to judge whether a trait could be effectively selected in a breeding

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Gennaro Fazio, Yizhen Wan, Dariusz Kviklys, Leticia Romero, Richard Adams, David Strickland, and Terence Robinson

-old grafted finished trees of four breeding populations (B491G16, G11P16, MM106G65, P2G11) was 0.579 ( P = 0.000). When populations were analyzed separately ( Fig. 1 ), their regression coefficients were unique to each population and showed a significant

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Nnadozie Oraguzie, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt, and Amy Iezzoni

German cherry breeding program that focused on cracking resistance and tree health traits resulting from the high humidity of the region along with fruit size and firmness. Producers’ preferences are greatly affected by their different end markets and

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman, and José X. Chaparro

Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Tom Gradziel, Ksenija Gasic, Gregory L. Reighard, John Clark, and Amy Iezzoni

traits to U.S. fresh and processed peach producers. This information has potential to assist breeders and supply chain groups in determining key fruit and tree traits to target when breeding, producing, and commercializing new peach cultivars. In addition

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Qijing Zhang and Dajun Gu

internationally and is valued for its large fruit size (5–90 g) and good quality. However, most cultivars require pollination trees to get good harvest ( Zhang, 1990 ). Hybridization between species in Prunus is possible and a number of useful interspecific

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Toshihiro Saito, Norio Takada, Hidenori Kato, Shingo Terakami, and Sogo Nishio

ranks fourth among fruit-tree crops after citrus, apple, and grape production. Pear breeding in Japan started in the early 20th century ( Machida, 1979 ), with fruit quality improvement being the most important objective of breeding programs. Important

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Yonghong Guo, Matthew Kramer, and Margaret Pooler

use in landscape plantings and in our breeding program, and 2) to verify that our detached leaf assay for this fungus was effective for flowering cherry taxa, where whole tree assays are often impractical. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Sixty

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Ed Stover, Stephen Mayo, Randall Driggers, and Robert C. Adair Jr.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) citrus scion breeding program is urgently working to develop HLB-tolerant cultivars with excellent fruit quality and productivity when HLB-affected. The slow process of assessing new citrus hybrids is a

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Aliza Vardi, Ilan Levin, and Nir Carmi

transferred into seeded cultivars ( Guo et al., 2004 ; Yamamoto et al., 2001 ). However, the verdict is still out on this approach as the cybrid trees have not yet set fruit. Mutation Breeding Spontaneous mutations have played an important role in the