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Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

amounts, it is slow to emerge in field conditions, and establishment is sporadic due to weed competition ( Amme, 2008 ). Therefore, it is typically established by transplanting plugs or plants grown in small pots 6–12 inches apart ( Greenlee, 2000 ), and

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

practices in the propagation bed and transplant (nonrooted stem cuttings, which are also referred to as slips) cutting practices are often overlooked both in research and in practice within production fields. The practice of holding transplants for a few DBP

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Eric B. Bish, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Craig K. Chandler

Bare-root strawberry transplants have been conventionally used for establishment of strawberry fruiting fields. These bare-root transplants have variability in vegetative vigor that results in irregular flowering patterns. We have been experimenting with a containerized transplant system to produce uniform transplants. Increasing transplant container volume by increasing perimeter, rather than depth, has resulted in increased plant size, but also increases transplant production costs. This study evaluated three container perimeters (17, 25, 32 cm) and three container shapes (circular, elliptical, and biconvex) such that different cell perimeters had the same greatest diameter. All containers had a depth of 3.5 cm. Root imaging analysis (MacRHIZOTM) was used to measure root growth in the container as well as root growth 3 and 6 weeks after transplanting. Increasing container perimeter led to increased plant growth before and after transplanting, but did not affect fruit production. Transplant container shape did not significantly alter plant growth or fruit production. Biconvex and elliptical containers required 25% and 15% less surface area, respectively. Therefore, a biconvex shaped container can be used to increase plant density during transplant propagation, decreasing surface area needed and reducing production costs.

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Lisa E. Richardson-Calfee, J. Roger Harris, Robert H. Jones, and Jody K. Fanelli

Root systems of most nursery-grown landscape trees extend well beyond the edge of the canopy. As a result, when large (greater than 2 m tall) field-grown trees are harvested for transplanting, only a small portion of the root system is moved and a

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Daniel J. Cantliffe

Seed germination is a critical step to achieve economic success in a transplant operation. Total germination of a seed lot dictates total plant sales by the producer, while uniformity of germination dictates the quality of the transplant crop. Using high vigor seed will help to achieve uniform stands, as well as maximize stands, in the transplant house or field. In order to maintain the highest seed quality, transplant producers should store unused seeds at recommended temperature and relative humidity for the crop species. Methods to promote uniformity and optimum stands under a wide range of conditions include the use of seed priming, film coating with fungicides, and pelleting for ease of planting.

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Bruce W. Wood

Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] nursery transplants performed best on establishment in nonirrigated orchards when using large trees planted early in the dormant season. After 6 years, growth and survival of bare-root transplants were equal to that of containerized transplants when established during the dormant season. Reducing transplant trunk height by ≤75% at planting did not affect subsequent tree survival, although rate of height growth and tree vigor increased such that there was no difference between pruned and nonpruned trees after 3 years, except that pruned trees appeared to possess greater vigor. There also were no differences in growth or survival between augured and subsoil + augured planting sites within 6 years of transplanting, and there were no differences between root pruned (severe tap or lateral root pruning) and nonpruned trees.

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Robert J. Dufault

The first objective of this paper is to review and characterize the published research in refereed journals pertaining to the nutritional practices used to grow vegetable transplants. The second objective is to note those studies that indicated a direct relationship between transplant nutritional practices and field performance. The third objective is to suggest some approaches that are needed in future vegetable transplant nutrition research. Even after review of the plethora of available information in journals, it is not possible to summarize the one best way to grow any vegetable transplant simply because of many interacting and confounding factors that moderate the effects of nutritional treatments. It is, however, important to recognize that all these confounding factors must be considered when developing guidelines for producing transplants. After thorough review of this information, it is concluded that transplant nutrition generally has a long term effect on influencing yield potential. Therefore, derivation of a nutritional regime to grow transplants needs to be carefully planned. It is hoped that the information that follows can be used to help guide this process.

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Bielinski M. Santos, Teresa P. Salame-Donoso, and Alicia J. Whidden

between housing developments and production fields using deep fresh water wells. High-impact sprinkler irrigation (4 to 5 gal/min per head) is used during strawberry production for two primary reasons: transplant establishment and freeze protection. For

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Bruce W. Wood, Jerry A. Payne, and Owen Jones

Overcrowding in young high-density pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] orchards has prompted a study of tree transplanting and evaluation of survival and tree performance. Shoot growth and nut production characteristics of 13-year-old `Stuart' and `Farley' pecan trees subjected to different stubbing and pruning treatments and then transplanted with a large tree spade indicated that transplants can survive with little or no pruning if moved when dormant. Shoot regrowth was proportional to the degree of pruning, and nut production was inversely proportional to the degree of pruning.

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Jingjing Yin, Nina L. Bassuk, Madeline W. Olberg, and Taryn L. Bauerle

Survivorship of high-quality landscape field-grown trees is a particular challenge as a result of differences in post-transplant recovery between species. During bare-root tree transplanting, a major part of the root system is severed, the tree is