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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, Luis R. Valenzuela-Estrada, and David R. Bryla

About 6000 ha of blackberry ( Rubus L. subgenus Rubus , Watson) was harvested in the United States in 2012 [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014 ]. Oregon was the leading producer with 2500 ha, most of which were trailing types grown

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

primarily grows trailing types used for the processed market, and nearly all of the fruit is harvested by machine ( Strik and Finn, 2012 ; USDA, 2014 ). Although there is an increasing body of knowledge about organic blackberry production ( Fernandez

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Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Mary E. Peterson, Patrick A. Jones, Jungmin Lee, Nahla V. Bassil, and Robert R. Martin

‘Hall’s Beauty’ is a new, early-ripening, high-quality, firm, and sweet thornless trailing blackberry ( Rubus subg. Rubus Watson) cultivar with extremely large and attractive double flowers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural

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Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

the plants and then only mowed or removed just before fruit harvest. Trailing blackberry is a perennial crop, but like other caneberry species, the shoots or canes of the plant are biennial. Vegetative canes, referred to as primocanes, emerge from the

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

of trailing blackberry fruit production ( Harkins et al., 2014 ). The nutrient content of different blackberry plant parts and nutrients other than N have only been examined during the establishment years ( Harkins et al., 2014 ), but not during

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Juliet Mann and Bernadine C. Strik

Mature `Kotata' and `Marion' trailing blackberry plants were studied in 1994. In `Kotata', canes were subjected to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% primary bud removal in Feb. 1994. In `Marion' 0, 55, or 100 primary buds were removed per dm2 from fruiting sections (panels). Primary bud removal did not subsequently affect yield per cane or per dm2 in either cultivar. Yield compensation occurred through production of secondary laterals, which were as fruitful as primary laterals.

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Angela K. Anderson and Chad E. Finn

Trailing blackberry cultivars, such as `Marion', can be traced to relatively few chance selections of Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Wild R. ursinus offer a range of horticulturally desirable traits to breeders, from high fruit quality to improved cold hardiness. Cuttings from 460 plants, representing 20 populations in southern British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, collected in 1993. Rooted clones were planted in 1994 in a replicated field trial to assess morphological variation. A greenhouse study was also undertaken, with 10 clones represented from each site, in two replications. Preliminary data from the greenhouse and field studies show variability in the following morphological characters: Glandular hairs; cane and prickle color; cane diameter; prickle density; internode length; leaf color, size, shape and density; and senescent leaf drop and color change. Floricane morphology will be assessed in 1995. Analysis of these data will determine relative genetic distances among the populations and enhance the understanding of the diversity available in R. ursinus.

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Angela K. Anderson and Chad E. Finn

The superb flavor of trailing blackberry cultivars, such as `Marion', is derived from Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Wild R. ursinus offer a range of horticulturally desirable traits to breeders, from high fruit quality to improved cold hardiness. Current cultivars are derived from relatively few sources of R. ursinus, selected primarily for fruiting characteristics. A replicated field trial of 460 clones, representing 20 populations from southern British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, was established in 1994. Observations during the planting year have indicated that monitoring variability in the following reproductive traits will be useful in assessing diversity; budbreak, flowering, and fruiting date; lateral length; proportion of reproductive laterals; gender; flower and fruit number; and fruit size. In particular, there are clones that exhibit large fruit size (4 to 5 g), high flower number per lateral, and uniform fruit set. Analysis of these data will contribute to determination of relative genetic distances among the populations and enhance the understanding of the diversity available in R. ursinus.

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Fumiomi Takeda, Bernadine C. Strik, Derek Peacock, and John R. Clark

Flower bud development was studied in `Cherokee', `Boysen', and `Marion' blackberries (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson). In `Cherokee' (erect type), the transition to reproductive development in buds on the branch canes occurred during September in Arkansas and Oregon. Transitions of buds in the axils of the most basal nodes (proximal to the main cane) and the most distal nodes lagged behind buds in the midsection (about nodes 6 to 10). Along the midsection of branch canes, the buds developed uniformly. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' (trailing type), the transition to reproductive development occurred in October and sepal primordia were observed in most buds examined by November. Progression of floral bud development continued into January, but at a slower rate than in autumn. Buds on the main canes (>3 m long) of `Boysen' and `Marion' remained at a more advanced stage of flower bud differentiation than buds on the basal branch canes. In both cultivars, buds from the middle one-third section, and sometimes buds from the bottom one-third section, tended to be more advanced than those buds in the top one-third section during much of the sampling period. The results suggest that rate and patterns of flower bud development vary among cultivars grown in different locations. However, the pattern of flower bud development was not in a basipetal fashion on main or branch canes.

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Neil C. Bell, Bernadine C. Strik, and Lloyd W. Martin

Primocanes of `Marion' trailing blackberry plants (Rubus spp.) were suppressed by cutting them off at ground level in either late April, May, June, or July 1991 and 1992. A control was included in which primocanes were not cut. Four canes per plant were trained in either August or February, with all other canes being removed and measured. Yield data were collected in 1992 and 1993, after which yield components were measured. Cane diameter was greatest for unsuppressed plants and declined with later primocane removal date. Cane length was greatest for unsuppressed and April-suppressed plants. Internode length decreased and main cane percent budbreak increased with later suppression date. Cane number and total main cane length per plant were increased in April-, May-, and June-suppressed plants in 1992 and for April- and June-suppressed plants in 1993. Consequently, yield of April-suppressed plants exceeded that of unsuppressed plants in 1992. Yield of April-, May-, and June-suppressed plants exceeded that of unsuppressed plants in 1993. August-trained plants yielded 46% more than February-trained plants, primarily because of higher percent budbreak on main canes. August-trained plants also produced longer canes with more nodes and a greater number of fruit per main cane lateral.