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Xuejuan Chen, Ming Sun, Jianguo Liang, Hui Xue, and Qixiang Zhang

genotypes have been created by cultivation and breeding over thousands of years ( Anderson, 2006 ). Chrysanthemums are among the most important and valuable fall-blooming plants for their diversity of flower shapes, colors, and forms. Chen et al. (1995

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Li-Qiang Tan, Xin-Yu Wang, Hui Li, Guan-Qun Liu, Yao Zou, Shen-Xiang Chen, Ping-Wu Li, and Qian Tang

southwest China, Sichuan is one of the proposed regions of origin for C. sinensis ( Zhong, 1980 ). It is also regarded as the first place where humans started to cultivate tea before the Han Dynasty (200 bc , Chen and Pei, 2003 ). Thousands of years of

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Shunzhao Sui, Jianghui Luo, Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Weiting Men, Lu Fan, Yu Bai, and Mingyang Li

Wintersweet ( C. praecox ) belongs to the Calycantaceae family and is a 2.5- to 3.0-m tall deciduous shrub native to China. Wintersweet is a rare ornamental species and has over a thousand-year history of cultivation; as its name indicates, it

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Yu-Chun Chu and Jer-Chia Chang

been done. Pitaya produces fruit that contains thousands of tiny seeds ( Hsu, 2004 ). Moreover, Weiss et al. (1994) reported a positive relationship between seed weight and fruit/pulp weight in pitaya under favorable conditions; however, there is no

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Zibin Zhang, Nadav Ravid, and Michael E. Wetzstein

., 2006 ). The pomegranate fruit is spherical, crowned with a persistent calyx, and covered with a leathery pericarp derived from sepals and adhering floral tissue. Developing from a flower with showy crenulated petals, the hypogenous ovary contains a

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Shengrui Yao, Junxin Huang, and Robert Heyduck

different jujube cultivars in June 2012 at Alcalde, New Mexico. Jujube flowers are small without showy petals. Its flower diameters ranged from 5 to 7 mm ( Table 2 ). ‘GA-866’, ‘Chaoyang’, ‘Sui’, ‘Zaofengcui’, ‘Globe’, ‘Maya’, and ‘Honeyjar’ had small

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Maren E. Veatch-Blohm, Dorothy Chen, and Matthew Hassett

cup at least as long as the petals, Division II (Large Cupped Daffodils) with the cup being greater than one-third of the length of the petals but not as long as the petals, Division IX (Poeticus Daffodils) with a small cup and white petals, and

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Neil O. Anderson and Richard T. Olsen

created such that some seedlings had the recurved petals of L. pardalinum transformed into either flat petals or trumpets and the entire population of greater than 100,000 hybrids were fragrant (unlike L. pardalinum , the original female seed parent

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Kim E. Hummer, Chad E. Finn, and Michael Dossett

. He had a combination of rough-cut, dirt-under-the-fingernails knowledge of a horticulturist and the sharp eyes of a plant breeder who could instantly delineate the smallest difference in the color of a petal or width of a stem. He was so vigorous and

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Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Jianfeng Yang, Tien V. Nguyen, Huamin Liu, Renwei Huang, Shunzhao Sui, and Mingyang Li

vegetative propagation and seeding selection. Some cultivars have been named and identified based on morphological traits such as the color or morphology of petals, and correspondingly several morphological classification criteria have been suggested ( Chen