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James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, and Melanie A. Schupp

early development of spindle training and pruning systems in The Netherlands, has often been recommended for spindle-style trees ( Crassweller et al., 2005 ; Robinson, 2003 ; Schupp, 2013 ). To our knowledge, there has never been a study of stub angle

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Thomas M. Kon, James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, and Richard P. Marini

2010 and 2011 on five-year-old ‘Buckeye Gala’/M.9 apple trees at 1.2 × 4.6-m spacing. Trees were trained to a tall spindle with an average tree height of ≈4.0 m and canopy width of ≈1.5 m. The shape of the canopy was a narrow tree wall. The experiment

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Hand-thinning gauge Is Effective in Tall Spindle Apples Apple growers reduce crop load via hand thinning to improve fruit size and quality at harvest. Final crop load targets can vary widely, as personal experience is a frequent driver of the

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Thomas M. Kon and James R. Schupp

in pruning from year to year. Final crop load of trees thinned with the hand-thinning gauge is a function of the total BCSA on a per tree basis. Therefore, annual, uniform pruning of the tall spindle system will theoretically result in uniform final

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restoration market. Stub Type Not Important When Pruning Apple A short upward facing cut, (Dutch cut), is a common practice when pruning tall-spindle apple trees to promote limb renewal. This cut releases latent buds to produce smaller limbs, and the upward

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Duane W. Greene, Alan N. Lakso, Terence L. Robinson, and Phillip Schwallier

flowering spurs on these trees again averaged ≈350. ‘Autumn Rose Fuji’. In 2005, five 5-year-old ‘Autumn Rose Fuji’/M.9 trained as a tall spindle tree were selected. Every other flowering spur on each tree was tagged. Fruit set was measured on each spur at

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Henry K. Ngugi and James R. Schupp

(Darwin 300; Fruit-Tec, Deggenhausertal, Germany) designed to remove apple blossoms in organic orchards ( Bertschinger et al., 1998 ). The string thinner consisted of a tractor-mounted frame with a 3.0 m tall vertical spindle in the center of the frame

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J.R. Schupp, T. Auxt Baugher, S.S. Miller, R.M. Harsh, and K.M. Lesser

be found in Bertschinger and Stadler (1998 ). The string thinner consisted of a tractor-mounted frame with a 3.0-m-tall vertical spindle in the center of the frame. Attached to the spindle were 36 steel plates securing a total of 648 plastic cords

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Stephen S. Miller, James R. Schupp, Tara A. Baugher, and Scott D. Wolford

, the Darwin string thinner with a 3.0-m tall stringed thinning spindle made physical contact with approximately two-thirds of a tree's canopy height. The USDA double-drum shaker and the grower single-drum shaker were also operated at a forward speed of

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Nicola Dallabetta, Andrea Guerra, Jonathan Pasqualini, and Gennaro Fazio

.M. Butler, B. Price, D. Fazio, G. Walsh, C. 2017 Performance of Geneva (R) apple rootstock selections with ‘Brookfield Gala’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ in a tall spindle system J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 71 137 148 Wunsche, J.N. Ferguson, I.B. 2005 Crop load interactions