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Michael W. Smith and William D. Goff

seed moisture meter (SB 900; Steinlite, Atchison, KS). Temperature and humidity at the time nuts were shaken from the tree and at solar noon were recorded. Total nuts per sample and those with split sutures were determined by inspection and the

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Shichao Wang, Xinlu Bai, Jianbin Zhou, and Zhujun Chen

Vegetable production in protected production systems has developed rapidly since the 1980s in China. By 2011, the area of protected production in China reached 4 million ha ( Li et al., 2013 ). Solar greenhouses are rectangular greenhouses 50 to 100

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David W. Burger

Comparisons were made between a commercially available, solar-activated mist control device (Weather Watcher®) and time clocks to determine their relative effectiveness, usefulness, and water-use characteristics on a greenhouse mist propagation bench. Coleus cuttings produced more roots per cutting and had greater average root lengths under Weather Watcher-controlled mist than those cuttings on a mist bench controlled by time. Paulownia cuttings produced the same number of roots under solar- or time-activated mist; however, the average root length was greater under Weather Watcher control. Mist benches controlled by the Weather Watcher used only one-third the water used by benches controlled by a time clock.

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James J. Stapleton

Soil disinfestation strategies for intensive vegetable crop production, which have relied heavily on chemical fumigants for the past 40 years, are now undergoing rapid change. The principal driving force of change has been governmental regulatory action to phase out chemicals with properties deemed to be hazardous to the environment and/or public health. Softer methods of soil disinfestation, which rely more on physical, cultural, biological, or integrated modes of action, likely will predominate in future vegetable-cropping systems. In conducive (i.e., warm) climates, solarization can be adopted economically in plasticulture systems. Solarization can be combined with other chemical, physical, and biological methods for enhanced management of soil and root pests and diseases.

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V.A. Khan, C. Stevens, J. Y. Lu, D. I. Collins, M. A. Wilson, J. E. Brown, M.K. Kabwe, and O. Adeyeye

A study was conducted in 1991 to determine the effect high soil temperatures would have on `Clemson Spineless' okra plants transplanted into field plots during 60 days of active soil solarization (solar heating of the soil using clear plastic during the summer period). Solarized plots were planted to a winter cover crop which served as an organic amendment, which was rototilled into the top 15 cm of the soil before solarizing. Okra transplants were planted on the outer edges of the plots one month after the solarization process commenced and drip irrigated. Three weeks (wk) after transplanting, a complete fertilizer at the rate of 200 parts per million was applied to the plots giving the following treatment combinations: solarized non-fertilized control (SNF), non-solarized non-fertilized control (NSNF), solar fertilized (SF). and non-solarized fertilized (NSF). Results showed that the increased soil temperature did not have any deleterious effect on the okra plants grown in SNF or SF plots. However, plants grown in SF plots suffered severe fertilizer bums which affected plant density and yield. This indicated a rapid breakdown of soil organic matter provided sufficient nutrients to sustain a late-season crop of okra. Plant height, marketable yield vegetative branching and income generated were greater in SNF compared to SF, NSF and NSNF plots, respectively.

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Inga A. Zasada, Clyde L. Elmore, Lani E. Yakabe, and James D. MacDonald

that distinguished our locations was soil temperature. Soil solarization is known to be an effective pest management strategy ( Elmore, 1991 ). The sustained soil temperatures of more than 37 °C at our 5-cm depths were sufficient to result in nematode

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Xuewen Gong, Shunsheng Wang, Cundong Xu, Hao Zhang, and Jiankun Ge

A solar greenhouse is an energy-saving greenhouse that consists of gables on both sides, a maintenance rear wall, a supporting skeleton, and covering materials. It is different from glass and plastic greenhouse in two ways. First, there is no

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Anita Solar and Franci Štampar

the absence of irrigation in our trial. As already reported ( Solar and Štampar, 2008 ), interyear variability expressed in the difference between maximum and minimum nut weights was from 0.9 to 1.2 g in all cultivars except ‘Willamette’, which was

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Shichao Wang, Zhujun Chen, Jun Man, and Jianbin Zhou

horticultural crops grew from 17.8% in 1998% to 30.8% in 2008 in China, whereas the fertilizer consumption of grain crops dropped from 71.0% in 1998% to 57.8% in 2008 ( Xin et al., 2012 ; Zhang et al., 2011 ). Solar greenhouses, unique greenhouses developed by

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Liang Zheng, Qi Zhang, Kexin Zheng, Shumei Zhao, Pingzhi Wang, Jieyu Cheng, Xuesong Zhang, and Xiaowen Chen

With the development of the greenhouse industry, vegetables can be grown locally year-round despite the restrictions of natural conditions. In northern China, the typical Chinese-style solar greenhouses (CSGs) are east–west-oriented and constructed