Turgeon (2006 ) defined sod as the surface layer of turf harvested for transplanting. Sod consists of the interconnected parts of turfgrass plants, the soil adhering to their roots, and the underground organs of the turf. Production of cultivated
Lakshmy Gopinath, Dennis L. Martin, Justin Quetone Moss, Yanqi Wu, Shuhao Yu, and James R. Underwood
Filippo Rimi, Stefano Macolino, and Bernd Leinauer
popular in the sod production industry because of their good sod-forming characteristics. The primary concern of sod producers is to obtain an adequate quality for harvest in the shortest possible period with minimal inputs. However, the time necessary to
Thomas R. Sinclair, Andrew Schreffler, Benjamin Wherley, and Michael D. Dukes
A key aspect in the establishment of turfgrass sod is rapid rooting or “knitting” of the sod into the underlying soil. Factors that ensure rapid sod rooting include 1) proper soil aeration; 2) adequate moisture in the underlying soil; and 3
D.M. Glenn, W.V. Welker, and George M. Greene
Mature peach trees were grown in six different-sized vegetation-free areas (VFAs) (0.36 to 13 m2) with and without stage 3 drip irrigation for 6 years. As VFA size increased, so did the trunk cross-sectional area, canopy diameter, total yield/tree, large fruit yield/tree, and pruning weight/tree. The yield efficiency of total fruit and large fruit initially increased with the increasing size of VFAs and then remained stable over the range of VFAs. Applying supplemental irrigation increased yield of large fruit and leaf N percentage in all VFAs. Cold hardiness was not affected by VFA size or irrigation treatment. The smaller VFAs resulted in smaller, equally efficient trees. Sod management was an effective, low-cost approach to controlling peach tree size, and, when combined with irrigated, high-density production, potentially increased productivity.
Candi Ge, Chanjin Chung, Tracy A. Boyer, and Marco Palma
Sod turfgrass provides significant environmental benefits ( Beard and Green, 1994 ; Stier et al., 2013 ). However, if improperly managed or used in drought-prone areas, sod causes detrimental environmental effects, such as high water consumption or
Bridget A. Ruemmele, Robert Cunningham, and M. C. Engelke
A limitation to distribution of some field-grown sod is the time required to produce a saleable product rooted sufficiently to retain its shape when removed from the ground. Research for a more efficient sod production process was examined using sod segments planted at a 1:100 plant:planting area ratio in an aboveground soilless, root-restricting system. Combinations of 3 growth media, 2 rooting stimulants, and 2 fertilizers each at 2 rates were evaluated to determine the most rapid and optimal sod development for zoysiagrass. Treatments were rated weekly for percent cover, rate of stolon development, and rooting. Although treatments with rooting stimulants generally scored higher than other treatments for rooting and percent cover, these differences were not consistently significantly different from week to week. No significant differences occurred among treatments for stolon development ratings. After 16 weeks of growth, sod strength was greatest when the growth medium was a peat and vermiculite mixture.
Cyrus A. Smith, James L. Walworth, Mary J. Comeau, Richard J. Heerema, Joshua D. Sherman, and Randall Norton
Soil conditions, including sodicity, salinity, and poor drainage, limit distribution of pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] acreage in the southwestern United States. Multiple aspects of plant physiology and metabolism are affected by
J.M. Goatley Jr., D.B. Smith, P.D. Gerard, and G.E. Coats
Research was conducted to evaluate the performance of a hydraulically driven turfgrass sod strength machine equipped with a force transducer to measure various strength parameters. The most commonly reported strength parameter, peak force (PF), continued to provide the quickest and easiest measurements of sod strength. Calculations of work involving the continuous measurement of sod strength over the duration of the stretch did not consistently improve the information provided by the PF measurement. Changes in sod bed pull speeds altered the calculations of work, whereas pull speed changes generally had little effect on force measurements, an important consideration for sod strength measurement devices that have limited control of sod bed pull speed. The unit was marginally successful in distinguishing sod strength differences between St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze.] treated with various levels of pyridine herbicides. The device also provided strength parameters that distinguished the relative strengths of four warm-season turfgrass sods.
J.M. Goatley Jr. and R.E. Schmidt
This study was conducted to determine if foliar-applied biostimulators could enhance harvestability and transplanting of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod. The systemic triazole fungicides propiconazole at 42 mg·m-2 and triadimefon at 150 mg·m-2 enhanced post-transplant rooting and sod strength of bluegrass. Propiconazole had the best sod enhancement effect, increasing sod tensile strength 23% and increasing transplant root lift strength 64% across three experiments. The synthetic cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) at 6 mg·m-2 and seaweed extract (SWE, a freeze-dried extract of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum) at 0.3 ml product/m 2 had little effect. The response to triadimefon was intermediate. Foliar applications of chelated Fe phosphate citrate at 112 mg·m-2 did not enhance sod strength or rooting of Kentucky bluegrass when applied either alone or in combination with the biostimulator materials. Chemical names used: l-(2-(2,4 -dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-l,3-dioxo1an-2-ylmethyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazole(propiconazole);1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-lH-(l,2,4-triazo1-l-yl)-butanone (triadimefon);6-benzylaminopurine (BA, benzyladenine).
D.M. Glenn and W.V. Welker
Planting sod beneath peach trees to control excessive vegetative growth was evaluated from 1987 to 1993 in three field studies. Peach trees were established and maintained in 2.5-m-wide, vegetation-free strips for 3 years, and then sod was planted beneath the trees and maintained for 5 to 7 years. Reducing the vegetation-free area beneath established peach trees to a 30- or 60-cm-wide herbicide strip reduced total pruning weight/tree and weight of canopy water shoots in many years. Fruit yield was reduced by reducing the size of the vegetation-free area in some, but not all, years; however, yield efficiency (kg yield/cm2 of trunk area) was not reduced in two studies, and in only 1 year in the third study. Planting sod beneath peach trees increased available soil water content in all years and yield efficiency based-evapotranspiration (kg yield/cm soil water use + precipitation) in some years compared to the 2.5-m herbicide strip. Reestablishing sod beneath peach trees has the potential to control vegetative growth and may be appropriate for high-density peach production systems where small, efficient trees are needed.