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Bruk E. Belayneh, John D. Lea-Cox, and Erik Lichtenberg

and the time taken to evaluate crop water use and integrate other information, e.g., weather conditions during the past few days and in the immediate future ( Lea-Cox, 2012 ). Many sensor technologies have been developed and used over the years to aid

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John Majsztrik, Erik Lichtenberg, and Monica Saavoss

Automation can improve irrigation efficiency, but automation needs both hardware and software to do so. Many soil-moisture-sensor-based systems use hardware to measure and track substrate moisture levels and specialized software to display data

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

high-quality plants, conserving both water and fertilizer. Capacitance substrate moisture sensors have been successfully used to monitor and control drip irrigation based on target θ thresholds for containerized plants grown in greenhouses ( Burnett and

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Scott Henderson, David Gholami, and Youbin Zheng

preference. In many commercial greenhouse operations, irrigation scheduling is typically based on the experience of the grower by “lifting and touching,” using qualitative, rather than quantitative, information such as using scientific sensors to monitor the

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John D. Lea-Cox, William L. Bauerle, Marc W. van Iersel, George F. Kantor, Taryn L. Bauerle, Erik Lichtenberg, Dennis M. King, and Lauren Crawford

irrigation systems, but also on easy-to-use decision tools that help the farmer monitor and automate irrigation scheduling. Why do horticultural crops require different irrigation strategies as compared with agronomic crops? Wireless sensor networks have been

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Stephanie E. Burnett and Marc W. van Iersel

bulky and require routine maintenance. Growers must refill microtensiometers frequently, and they are easily dislodged from the substrate, which breaks capillarity and results in faulty readings. Other soil moisture sensors have been either too expensive

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Julián Miralles-Crespo and Marc W. van Iersel

based on soil water tension has been used for decades (see Shock and Wang, 2011 ), whereas the use of soil or substrate θ has become more feasible in recent years with the advent of low-cost sensors (e.g., Nemali and van Iersel, 2006 ). Nemali and van

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Julie M. Tarara and Gwen-Alyn Hoheisel

For automated weather stations, recommendations and minimum standards exist for proper shielding of temperature sensors to minimize errors that arise from solar radiation striking the sensor ( ASAE, 2004 ; Hubbard et al., 2001 ; WMO, 2006

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Yong Ha Rhie and Jongyun Kim

substrate supply, another issue for this sustainable production is to implement efficient irrigation to reduce water and nutrient requirements. Recently developed sensor technology enables the irrigation of plants based on their actual water needs, which can

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David Kohanbash, George Kantor, Todd Martin, and Lauren Crawford

Wireless sensor networks ( Fig. 1 ) are an important tool for monitoring crops and controlling irrigation ( Angelopoulos et al., 2011 ; Bauerle et al., 2013 ; Coates et al., 2012 ; Lea-Cox, 2012 ). A common issue with today’s WSN systems is being