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Youping Sun, Ji Jhong Chen, Haifeng Xing, Asmita Paudel, Genhua Niu, and Matthew Chappell

Salinity is one of the most significant environmental challenges when growing ornamental plants throughout the world. In arid and semiarid regions, low-quality water, such as treated and reclaimed municipal effluent (reclaimed water) and industrial

Open access

Ji Jhong Chen, Haifeng Xing, Asmita Paudel, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, and Matthew Chappell

Salinity has become a serious abiotic stressor in both nursery production and urban landscapes. Irrigating with poor-quality water and overapplication of fertilizer, manure, and compost in nursery production can lead to salt accumulation in poorly

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Christy T. Carter and Catherine M. Grieve

industry, especially greenhouse growers, has been to use lower quality water and/or greenhouse effluents to irrigate their crops. Many growers have also found applications for saline or degraded wastewaters in their own operations that continue to allow

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Naser Lotfi, Kourosh Vahdati, Bahman Kholdebarin, and Elaheh Najafian Ashrafi

Land affected by salinization in arid and semiarid regions of South Asia is ≈42 million ha ( FAO, 1994 ). Approximately 33 million ha are in I.R. in Iran, known as the major nut crop producer in the world such as walnut. Salinity can be harmful

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Jeffrey M. Hamilton and Jorge M. Fonseca

diverse Brassicaceae family (crucifers) is reported to have cancer preventive properties ( Heimler et al., 2006 ), with numerous agriculturally important species tolerant to salinity ( Ashraf and McNeilly, 2004 ; Shannon and Grieve, 1999 ), we selected

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, James Poss, and Michael A. Mellano

crops, are glycophytes ( Greenway and Munns, 1980 ) because they have evolved under conditions of low soil salinity. Cut flower growers are reluctant to use poor-quality water for irrigation because floricultural species are believed to be highly

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Daniela Borgognone, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Luigi Lucini, and Giuseppe Colla

In recent decades, the reduction of fresh water sources coupled with an increase in population and in agricultural production overall led to the use of lower quality and saline-sodic drainage waters in agriculture. In many regions of the

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Rafael Urrea-López, Rocío I. Díaz de la Garza, and Juan I. Valiente-Banuet

biotic and abiotic factors ( Santana-Buzzy, 2010 ). High salinity conditions in agricultural soils constitute one of the most serious challenges faced by horticultural crops in Mexico. It is estimated that by 2002, more than 1 million hectares were

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Zhongjie Ji, James J. Camberato, Cankui Zhang, and Yiwei Jiang

Salinity stress can severely inhibit plant growth and development. The adverse effects of salinity stress on plants are generally imposed through osmotic stress by limiting water uptake and excessive uptake of sodium (Na + ) ions ( Munns and Tester

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Kenneth B. Marcum and Charles L. Murdoch

Physiological responses to salinity and relative salt tolerance of six C4 turfgrasses were investigated. Grasses were grown in solution culture containing 1, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mm NaCl. Salinity tolerance was assessed according to reduction in relative shoot growth and turf quality with increased salinity. Manilagrass cv. Matrella (FC13521) (Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.), seashore paspalum (Hawaii selection) (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz), and St. Augustinegrass (Hawaii selection) (Stenotaphrum secundatum Walt.) were tolerant, shoot growth being reduced 50% at ≈400 mm salinity. Bermudagrass cv. Tifway (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davey) was intermediate in tolerance, shoot growth being reduced 50% at ≈270 mm salinity. Japanese lawngrass cv. Korean common (Zoysia japonica Steud) was salt-sensitive, while centipedegrass (common) (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.) was very salt-sensitive, with total shoot mortality occurring at ≈230 and 170 mm salinity, respectively. Salinity tolerance was associated with exclusion of Na+ and Cl- from shoots, a process aided by leaf salt glands in manilagrass and bermudagrass. Shoot Na+ and Cl- levels were high at low (100 to 200 mm) salinity in centipedegrass and Japanese lawngrass resulting in leaf burn and shoot die-back. Levels of glycinebetaine and proline, proposed cytoplasmic compatible solutes, increased with increased salinity in the shoots of all grasses except centipedegrass, with tissue water levels reaching 107 and 96 mm at 400 mm salinity in bermudagrass and manilagrass, respectively. Glycinebetaine and proline may make a significant contribution to cytoplasmic osmotic adjustment under salinity in all grasses except centipedegrass.