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Ying Gao, Hao Liu, and Dong Pei

material. We used the protandrous walnut cultivars Liaoning 1 and Liaoning 3. Trees were 7 to 15 years of age in Hebei province and characterized by steady reproductive growth and moderate vigor. During staminate flower differentiation (Apr. 2010 to Apr

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Jen-An Lin and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

442 447 Xia, M.Z. 1993 The relationship between sugar-nitrogen ratio and reproductive organs abscission in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) J. Agron. Crop Sci. 170 348 353 Yoneda, K. Momose, H. Kubota, S. 1991 Effects of daylength and temperature on

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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu

( Bing et al., 2008 ; Miao et al., 2015 ). The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and has unique morphology. It is similar to a rhizome in appearance, but it has no visible node, internode, or adventitious roots (ARs

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

reserve carbohydrate in the roots that would normally be used to support vegetative or floral budbreak. In raspberry, spring vegetative and reproductive growth are concomitant ( Atkinson, 1973 ), and both need carbohydrate for production of new biomass

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Theoharis Ouzounis and Gregory A. Lang

to: 1) characterize natural N remobilization from leaves to reproductive and vegetative meristems in sweet cherry during fall and winter; 2) determine the effect of fall foliar urea applications on storage N levels in flowering spurs; 3) determine

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Donald R. Hodel

photosynthesis and exchanging gases for respiration and transpiration. The petiole is typically a slender, often elongated organ that supports and attaches the blade to the base or sheath. The base clasps and holds the entire leaf to the stem. There are two major

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and Wayne W. Hanna

developing more compact forms. Induced polyploidy often results in the gigas effect of individual organs; particularly those with determinate growth such as sepals, petals, fruits, and seeds ( Stebbins, 1950 ). However, in the case of induced autopolyploids

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Park S. Nobel and Miguel Castañeda

Detached, unrooted cladodes (stem segments) of the widely cultivated prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Cactaceae), which remain alive for at least 12 months, provide a model system for investigating stem responses to environmental factors. Initiation of organs varied seasonally; on average 2.14 new organs were initiated per cladode over a 16-week period in a glasshouse for cladodes detached in winter, 0.76 when detached in late spring, and only 0.07 when detached in late summer. Shading by 45% halved new organ initiation and shading by 95% decreased it by 96%. The seasonal and light responses for new organ initiation are consistent with field observations on O. ficus-indica. For detached cladodes maintained in environmental chambers for 14 weeks, the new organs were 10 times more likely to be fruit than daughter cladodes at day/night temperatures of 15/5 °C, equally likely to be either organ at 25/15 °C, and 10 times more likely to be daughter cladodes than fruit at 35/25 °C. Decreasing the shading or the temperature favored stomatal opening, as shown by increases in the dry mass/fresh mass ratio of the detached cladodes. Such increased stomatal opening was accompanied by increased photosynthetic activity, as shown by greater starch content and higher concentrations of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Why low day/night temperatures favored reproductive structures and high temperatures favored vegetative ones is not clear, but future research using unrooted cladodes may help elucidate the mechanisms involved.

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Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Fátima Medina-Lara, Yereni Minero-García, Luis W. Torres-Tapia, Sergio R. Peraza-Sánchez, and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

pepper cultivars examined ( Contreras-Padilla and Yahia, 1998 ; Estrada et al., 2000 ; Salgado-Garciglia and Ochoa-Alejo, 1990 ). Although capsaicinoids had been found in vegetative organs ( Estrada et al., 2002 ; Ishikawa et al., 1998 ), it is

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Marlene Ayala and Greg Lang*

In deciduous fruit trees, some storage reserves accumulate during fall and are used for early spring growth. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium L), stored reserves are critical for early growth and there is a transition phase during which current photoassimilates become the primary source for support of reproductive and vegetative sinks. As little is known about this transition, an experiment using 4-year-old `Regina' sweet cherry on the semidwarfing rootstock, Gisela 6, was established. Using whole canopy exposure chambers, five trees were pulsed with high levels of 13CO2 on three different dates during fall (Sept.-Oct). At leaf drop, leaves, buds, wood, bark and roots were sampled for GCMS analysis of pre-winter storage reserves. The major storage organs (those which had the highest change in isotopic ratios) were roots and wood in the trunk and branches. During spring, newly developing organs (flowers, fruits and young leaves) were sampled weekly from bloom to stage III of fruit development for additional GCMS analysis. The stored 13C was mobilized and partitioned to flowers, fruits and young leaves from early spring until one week after fruit set. The highest 13C levels in growing sinks were observed between bloom and fruit set. The isotopic composition of new organs did not differ initially (3 May). During the three next sampling dates (10-24 May) reproductive organs had higher 13C levels compared to vegetative growth. The role of storage reserves, as a source of assimilates for early spring growth and their implications for crop development, will be discussed.