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Paul Lyrene

Cultivated blueberries (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus species, including lowbush, highbush, and rabbiteye) normally produce flower buds at the end of the growing season; these remain dormant during the winter and give rise to flowers the following spring. However, rabbiteye and low-chill highbush cultivars that are maintained in a state of vigorous growth throughout the winter in an unheated greenhouse in Gainesville in north Florida flower and produce fruit continuously on new growth throughout December, January, and February. The regimen of cool (but not freezing) nights and short, warm days permits the plants to continue growth throughout the winter and results in rapid conversion of newly-formed axillary buds into flower buds. These do not become dormant, but sprout to produce flowers and fruit almost as quickly as they are formed. Extending the photoperiod or raising night temperatures inhibits primocane flowering by allowing the axillary buds to remain vegetative. Primocane flowering, which occurs naturally in highbush blueberry production fields south of lat. 28°N in Florida and at lat. 30°S in eastern Australia, can contribute to an extended harvest season (4 to 8 months per year) from a single cultivar.

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Bernadine C. Strik

The commercial cultivation of primocane-fruiting blackberries is relatively recent, following the release of the first commercial cultivars in 2005 ( Clark et al., 2005 ). Nutrient management programs specific to primocane-fruiting blackberry have

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Yushan Duan, Thomas W. Walters, and Timothy W. Miller

Development Council, 2016 ; USDA-NASS, 2016 ). Red raspberry has perennial roots and biennial aboveground shoots. It produces primocanes in the first year, which overwinter and became floricanes in the second year ( Crandall, 1995 ). Although both primocanes

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Eric Hanson, Mike Von Weihe, Annemiek C. Schilder, Ann M. Chanon, and Joseph C. Scheerens

the harvest seasons to periods when prices are higher ( Gaskell, 2004 ). Tunnels provided similar benefits for primocane-fruiting blackberry ( Rubus spp.) in Oregon ( Thompson et al., 2009 ). Primocane-fruiting raspberry in stand-alone tunnels in

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Brent L. Black, Tiffany Maughan, Christina Nolasco, and Blake Christensen

flower damage due to late spring freezes. Canes of primocane-fruiting (PF) cultivars can be cut to the ground each year to focus on a fall crop only, or they can be double-cropped, producing a fall crop on the upper portion of the primocane, with the rest

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Gina E. Fernandez and James R. Ballington

-year canes and the harvest season commences in June and ends in mid-August. In 1995, the University of Arkansas and North Carolina State University jointly released NC 194, a primocane-fruiting blackberry selection that was intended for use as parental

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Jean-Pierre Privé, J.A. Sullivan, J.T.A. Proctor, and O.B. Allen

Abreviations: FB, full bloom; PF, primocane fruiting. 2 Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, Financial assistance from Agriculture Canada to J.-P.P. while on educational leave is gratefully acknowledged. This study was also supported by the Ontario

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John R. Clark and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

‘APF-45’ was introduced to broaden the choices of this innovative, primocane-fruiting blackberry ( Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) type. This is the third in the University of Arkansas Prime-Ark® Brand Primocane Fruiting Blackberry cultivar line

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Christopher I. Vincent, M. Elena García, Donn T. Johnson, and Curt R. Rom

In Sept. 2007, malformed leaves were observed on APF-46, a University of Arkansas primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberry selection, at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Fayetteville, AR (lat. 36°5′4″ N, long. 94°10′29″ W

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Pauliina Palonen and Katriina Mouhu

. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of ProCa on growth and flowering in primocane fruiting red raspberry ‘Ariadne’. Materials and Methods Primocane fruiting red raspberry ‘Ariadne’ plants propagated from root cuttings were received in 10-cm