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R. Grube* and R. Aburomia

A low to moderate incidence of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor is commonly observed in commercial lettuce fields of all types of lettuce (e.g. crisphead, romaine, leaf, butter) and although partial resistance has been reported, no sources of immunity have been described. We sought to determine whether there was variability between different types of lettuce and among cultivars within types. Replicated experiments were conducted in an infested field using established inoculation procedures. Significant variation in susceptibility to S. minor was detected among cultivars within as well as between major lettuce types. Correlations between lettuce drop susceptibility and plant canopy size, seedling vigor, and additional morphological traits were determined. Variability between different field experiments was also evaluated for several traits and a subset of cultivars. Our results suggest that cultivated germplasm may provide genes that are as useful or more useful than those found in genotypes with more primitive growth habits in developing cultivars with tolerance to lettuce drop.

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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Chris A. Martin, and Jean C. Stutz

Four AM fungal isolates (Glomus sp.) were screened for effects on growth of `Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.) under well-watered conditions. Plants were inoculated with an isolate of AM fungi, or non-inoculated. Non-mycorrhizal plants received more phosphorus (P) fertilizer than mycorrhizal plants because mycorrhizae enhance P uptake. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in 8-liter containers for 3 months in a glasshouse. Plants were then harvested, and root length colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, leaf P concentration, and plant growth were determined. Root length colonized by AM fungi differed among isolates; control plants were non-mycorrhizal. Leaf P concentration was in the optimal range for all plants; however, plants colonized by Glomus mosseae Isolate 51C had higher leaf P concentration than non-mycorrhizal plants. Plants colonized by Glomus AZ112 had higher leaf P concentration than all other plants. All plants had similar canopy leaf area, shoot length, and shoot dry mass. Plants colonized with AM fungi, except Glomus mosseae Isolate 51C, had longer root length and greater root dry mass than non-mycorrhizal plants. All mycorrhizal plants had lower shoot:root dry mass and leaf area:root length ratios than non-mycorrhizal plants. Our results showed that under optimal P nutrition and well-watered conditions, AM fungal isolates differentially altered the morphology of citrus plants by stimulating root growth.

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Julia Reekie*, Peter Hicklenton, John Duval, Craig Chandler, and Paul Struik

Our previous work on modifying strawberry plant morphology used either mowing to remove the leaf laminas and part of the petioles on `Camarosa', or a new reduced-risk gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, Prohexadione-Ca (ProCa), to restrict cell elongation in `Sweet Charlie'. These early studies showed promising results in acheiving desirable plant size and increasing fruit yield in annual hill plasticulture. Therefore, in the growing seasons of 2001 and 2002, we used `Camarosa' to explore the possibility of combining mowing and ProCa as a means of modifying strawberry transplant morphology in the nurseries, and studied its effect on fruit production in annual hill plasticulture. Plants were mowed and treated with 62.5 μL·L-1 of ProCa in a nursery field in Nova Scotia (45°26'N, 63°27'W). Treatments consisted of either mowing, the application of ProCa, or a combination of mowing and ProCa on one of two dates, 5 or 19 Sept. ProCa application early in the growing season had increased the production of daughter plants in the nursery. All plants were harvested in early October, and immediately transplanted in Dover, Fla. (28°00'N, 82°22'W). Fruits were collected twice weekly from late November to February or March. At time of harvest, both mowing and ProCa reduced plant height and total leaf area; plants which were treated with ProCa and mowed were the shortest. On average, treated plants had higher fruit yield as compared to untreated plants. In 2001, early fruit production in December was increased significantly in treated plants.

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, and Mengmeng Gu

photosynthesis, morphology, and secondary metabolism ( Amaki et al., 2011 ; Brazaityte et al., 2016 ). The development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology provided researchers opportunities to regulate plant yield and nutritional quality using different

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Eric B. Bish, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Craig K. Chandler

Containerized strawberry transplants offer an alternative to problematic bare-root transplants, which often have variability in flowering and vegetative vigor. Containerized transplants were propagated in three different container cell sizes (75, 150, and 300 cm3) and grown at two different temperature regimes for 2 weeks prior to planting (25/15 and 35/25°C day/night). Bare-root transplants from Massachusetts and Florida were graded into small, medium, and large plants based on crown size (8, 12, and 16 mm respectively). Plug transplants grown at 25/15°C had greater root dry weights than transplants grown at 35/25°C. Root imaging analysis (MacRHIZO) showed that the differences in dry weight were due to root area, not root tissue density. Crown dry weight increased with increasing cell size. Plug transplants grown at 25/15°C flowered earlier and had greater production than any other treatment. The 75 cm3 cell size grown at 35/25°C produced greater December strawberry production than larger cell sizes at the same temperature regime; however, the 75 cm3 cell size had decreased January strawberry production while the larger cell sizes had increased production. Larger plug cell sizes had significantly greater production than smaller plugs throughout the season, whereas larger bare-roots had greater production only early in the season. Containerized plug transplants therefore offers a viable alternative to problematic bare-root transplants.

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John Frett, W. Edward Kee, and Stephen Redcay

Lima bean yields are lower in Delaware than in other lima-bean-producing states. One of the factors that contributes to the low production is the high temperatures that occur during production. Six commercial varieties of lima beans, both fordhook and baby lima bean types, were grown in a glass greenhouse at either 25C or 35C daytime temperatures to screen for heat tolerance. Plants grown at high temperature were typically shorter and more bushy than plants grown at 25C. Few, if any, buds, flowers, or early pods remained on plants at harvest if the plants were grown at 25C, while plants grown at 35C were still producing buds and flowers. Lima bean yields were generally reduced at 35C. The magnitude of the effect on yield ranged from `F1072', which had a 100-fold decrease in yield, to `Early Thorogreen', which demonstrated a slight increase in yield in response to increased temperatures.

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Joseph J. King and Dennis P. Stimart

In an attempt to analyze genetically the interaction of endogenous auxin concentration and adventitious root formation, an EMS mutagenized M2 population of Arabidopsis thaliana was screened for mutants with altered abilities to form adventitious roots. A selected recessive nuclear mutant, rooty (rty), is characterized by extreme proliferation of roots, inhibition of shoot development and other morphological alterations suggestive of auxin or ethylene effects. The rty phenotype occurs in wild type seedlings grown on auxin containing medium and relatively normal growth is stimulated in rty seedlings growing on cytokinin containing medium. Analysis by GC-MS found that endogenous IAA concentrations in rty are 2 to 17 times higher than in wild type depending on tissue type and IAA form. Dose response experiments with IAA and NAA indicated that rty does not express increased sensitivity to auxin. These data suggest that the rty phenotype is due to elevated endogenous auxin. A genetic map location for rty and possible roles for the wild type RTY gene product in regulating auxin concentration will be presented.

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Yanhong Lou, Liang Chen, Qingguo Xu, and Xunzhong Zhang

) indicated that morphological variation in tall fescue germplasm was heritable, and that several traits including plant height and dry matter yield had a high narrow sense heritability value. Morphological traits are of great importance in selecting rational

Open access

Nuananong Purente, Bin Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Yunwei Zhou, and Miao He

improved varieties. EMS as a mutagen has been reported to affect the physiology, anatomy, biochemistry, and morphology of plants differently, depending on its concentration. Various studies have been conducted on using mutagens to improve morphological

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Renwei Huang, Daofeng Liu, Min Zhao, Zhineng Li, Mingyang Li, and Shunzhao Sui

points of seedlings with colchicine. In addition, the chromosomal, morphological and stomatal characteristics of the tetraploid plants were assessed. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Seeds of L. maritima (L.) Desv. used in this study were supplied