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Lingyun Yuan, Yujie Yuan, Shan Liu, Jie Wang, Shidong Zhu, Guohu Chen, Jinfeng Hou, and Chenggang Wang

′, Fs, and Fm′ are the minimal, steady-state, and maximal fluorescence level in illuminated leaves, respectively. These fluorescence parameters were used to calculate the following: 1) the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII, ФPSII = (Fm′ − Fs

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Stephen E. McCann and Bingru Huang

canopy ( Turgeon, 1999 ). A rating of 6 was considered the minimal acceptable turf quality level. Leaf photochemical efficiency was estimated by measuring the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio (F v /F m ) in the nonenergized state accomplished by

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Giverson Mupambi, Stefano Musacchi, Sara Serra, Lee A. Kalcsits, Desmond R. Layne, and Tory Schmidt

measured using leaf spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence. Leaf spectral reflectance can be used to obtain the photochemical reflectance index, which provides a measure of photosynthetic light use efficiency ( Gamon et al., 1992 ). The most

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Yiming Liu, Hongmei Du, Kai Wang, Bingru Huang, and Zhaolong Wang

was measured at 663 and 645 nm with a spectrophotometer (Helios Alpha, thermospectronic, Rochester, NY) and total chlorophyll concentration was calculated as described by Arnon (1949) . Leaf photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) was estimated by measuring

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Wei Hu, Qing Di, Jingyi Wei, Jie Zhang, and Jia Liu

0 ), photochemical quenching coefficient (q p ), PSII photochemical maximum quantum efficiency (F v /F m ), chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), and actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Φ PSII ). The specific measurement

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Mahalaxmi Veerasamy, Yali He, and Bingru Huang

comparison with the heat-stressed plants. Measurements. Two parameters, including leaf chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency, were measured to evaluate leaf senescence and the severity of heat injury. All measurements were made on leaves at

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Madhulika Sagaram and Jacqueline K. Burns

). These processes occur in competition, and any increase in efficiency of one will result in a decrease in yield of the other two ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). The process of de-exciting light energy, called “quenching,” occurs through photochemical

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Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel

were the following: 1) to determine the photochemical responses of different species to a wide range of light intensities; 2) to quantify how light acclimation affects crops’ photochemistry; and 3) to examine how supplemental light use efficiency

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Xunzhong Zhang and Erik H. Ervin

. Turfgrass quality or injury was rated based on a visual scale of 1 to 9 with 9 indicating the best quality or no injury and 1 indicating the worst quality or most injury (chlorosis). Canopy photochemical efficiency measurement. The photochemical efficiency

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Eleni M. Abraham, William A. Meyer, Stacy A. Bonos, and Bingru Huang

taken. Photochemical efficiency was expressed as chlorophyll fluorescence in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm). Single-leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate were measured with a portable gas exchange system (LI-6400