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Li Li, Xiulan Xu, Ping Wu, Guo Zhang, and Xiaobing Zhang

breeders as well as loss of production and cultivation to farmers. Molecular marker technologies offer alternative approaches for achieving genetic diversity and identifying cultivars. For many molecular markers that have undergone rapid development, single

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Beibei Li, Jianfu Jiang, Xiucai Fan, Ying Zhang, Haisheng Sun, Guohai Zhang, and Chonghuai Liu

instead switched to modern cultivars or recently bred cultivars. Therefore, many germplasm resources that were not preserved were lost permanently. DNA molecular marker technique showing polymorphism at the DNA level is a powerful tool for the

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Michael J. Havey and Sunggil Kim

Scientific, Waltham, MA) and quality was assessed by electrophoresis of DNA through 1% agarose gels. Molecular markers distinguishing onion cytoplasms were indel markers in an intergenic region ( Havey, 1995 ) and the accD gene ( von Kohn et al., 2013 ) in

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Jinguo Hu

below 0.73. Similar work has been reported in other ornamental plants and confirmed the value of molecular marker analysis in assessing genetic diversity or understanding genetic relationships among cultivars and species ( Ahmad et al., 2006 ; Carr et

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Aoxue Wang, Fanjuan Meng, Xiangyang Xu, Yong Wang, and Jingfu Li

intensive and time-consuming. The development of molecular markers provides the possibility of rapid screening of resistant germplasm for breeding. Moreover, molecular markers tightly linked to resistant genes also provide the basis for isolating and cloning

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Peggy Ozias-Akins, Edward L. Lubbers, and Wayne W. Hannna

Apomixis is asexual reproduction through seed. Apomixis in the genus Pennisetum is of the gametophytic (aposporous) type. Genes for apomixis have been transferred from a wild apomictic species (P. squamulatum) to pearl millet (P. glaucum) by conventional breeding to produce an obligately apomictic backcross 3 (BC3) plant (Dujardin and Hanna, 1989, J. Genet. Breed. 43:145). Molecular markers based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms and random amplified polymorphic DNAs were identified in BC3 that were shared only with the apomictic parent. Segregation of these informative markers in a BC4 population indicated that three linkage groups from P. squamulatum were present in BC3 and that minimal recombination between these alien chromosomes and those of the recurrent parent occurred. Transmission of only one of the linkage groups was required for transfer of apomixis. Recombination is essential for genetic mapping, thus we are beginning to map the informative molecular markers in an F, interspecific cross between pearl millet and P. squamulatum, a population that segregates for apomictic and sexual reproduction.

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Milica Ćalović, Chunxian Chen, Qibin Yu, Vladimir Orbović, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr, and Jude W. Grosser

histogram produced by the ploidy analyzer. EST-SSR molecular analysis. Selected somatic tetraploid plants were further tested with molecular markers using EST-SSR method to determine whether they were auto- or allotetraploids. Genomic DNA of recovered

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Michael J. Havey and Christopher von Kohn

is a slow process requiring years. Significant effort has been made to identify molecular markers that distinguish onion cytoplasms and predict genotypes at Ms . S cytoplasm is an alien cytoplasm that was introgressed into onion populations ( Havey

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Minou Hemmat, Norman F. Weeden, and Susan K. Brown

Apple scab, Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., is one of the most damaging diseases of apples. Although fungicide sprays have been used to control the disease, genetic resistance in existing commercially important varieties would be desirable. Identification of molecular marker(s) would be helpful in devising biotechnological approaches to control the disease. We used bulk segregant analysis to identify RAPD markers that cosegregate or display a tight linkage with Vf gene in Prima × Spartan cross. Using this approach, we are saturating the region around the scab resistance gene for the purpose of bracketing the locus. We have identified several markers associated with the Vf locus. The closest markers have been isolated and sequenced to be used as SCARs. The relationship and distances of the markers with the Vf locus and other previously reported markers will be discussed.

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Yanmei Zhang, Xuelin Shen, Xiaoqin Sun, Jia Liu, Yifeng Xia, Xin Zou, and Yueyu Hang

features. Many nuclear genes, chloroplast genes and mitochondrial genes are used for species-level identification. Different molecular markers have also been used to study the genetic relationship and species identification of the Trapa genus. For example