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Li-Juan Zhang, Tian-Xiu Zhong, Li-Xin Xu, Lie-bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

deficit irrigation or mild drought stress before and during cold acclimation impacts on defensive metabolism and freezing tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Creeping bentgrass undergoes cold acclimation, which is induced by a combination of reduced

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Zhihui Chang, Laiqiang Zhuo, Fangfang Yu, and Xunzhong Zhang

provide hormones (particularly IAA) directly or stimulate the activity of microbes that supply substrates and hormones, especially under drought stress. They also noted that biosolids treatment may affect N metabolism of tall fescue. However, little

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Craig S. Charron, Steven J. Britz, Roman M. Mirecki, Dawn J. Harrison, Beverly A. Clevidence, and Janet A. Novotny

complex biochemical matrices. In plant science, isotopic labeling has been used to study carbohydrate biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, and photosynthate partitioning ( Kollman et al., 1973 ; Schiltz et al., 2005 ; Yamagata et al., 1987 ). Isotopic

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Mahalaxmi Veerasamy, Yali He, and Bingru Huang

cytokinin may delay leaf senescence or promote better heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass by affecting protein metabolism. Understanding the relationship of cytokinins and heat-induced changes in protein metabolism may help elucidate their role in

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

investigation of GA content in apple often leads to varied results among different groups as a result of different cultivars and developmental stages examined as well as techniques used ( Table 1 ) and evidence for GA metabolism in vegetative tissues of apple in

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Riccardo Lo Bianco, Mark Rieger, and She-Jean S. Sung

119 ORAL SESSION 31 (Abstr. 597–603) Photosynthesis & Carbon Metabolism–Fruits/Nuts

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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han

in field- and growth chamber-grown winter wheat plants. They found that ABA level increased, whereas cytokinin level declined during cold acclimation. Research on changes of ABA, cytokinin, and H 2 O 2 associated with antioxidant metabolism in

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Yi Zhang, Xiao-Hui Hu, Yu Shi, Zhi-Rong Zou, Fei Yan, Yan-Yan Zhao, Hao Zhang, and Jiu-Zhou Zhao

( Debouba et al., 2006 ; Liang et al., 2011 ). Many studies have shown that these N metabolism enzymes respond differently depending on species, cultivar, tissue, and duration and intensity of stress ( Gangwar and Singh, 2011 ; Liang et al., 2011

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Hui-juan Zhou, Xia-nan Zhang, Ming-shen Su, Ji-hong Du, Xiong-wei Li, and Zheng-wen Ye

traits of fruit quality and is primarily dictated by the concentration of sugars ( Kader, 2008 ; Zhou et al., 2018 ). Regulating fruit sugar metabolism has become an important method of maintaining the quality of postharvest peach fruit ( Zhu et al

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Zhimin Yang, Lixin Xu, Jingjin Yu, Michelle DaCosta, and Bingru Huang

). Responses of carbohydrate metabolism to drought stress vary with forms of carbohydrates, plant species, and stress duration or severity. Decline in sucrose and starch content with short-term drought stress and increases in sucrose and starch have been