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Kathryn M. Kleitz, Marisa M. Wall, Constance L. Falk, Charles A. Martin, Marta D. Remmenga, and Steven J. Guldan

The daily use of herbs by people throughout the world is common and widespread. From spices in foods and as herbal tea beverages to the substitution of pharmaceuticals with herbal compounds to treat illnesses, virtually everyone has used herbs in

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Elaine M. Grassbaugh, Mark A. Bennett, and Andrew F. Evans

40 WORKSHOP 3 (Abstr. 656) Seed Quality Issues in Medicinal Herbs

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Karen L. Panter, Timmothy M. Gergeni, Casey P. Seals, and Andrea R. Garfinkel

High tunnels are important alternatives to greenhouse or field production of high-value crops such as cut flowers and herbs ( Carey et al., 2009 ; Wells and Loy, 1993 ; Wien, 2009b ). Many cut flowers and herbs produced in the United States are

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Robert E. Paull and Gail Uruu

Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ), also called drumstick tree and horseradish tree, is a fast-growing tree that is grown throughout the tropics for human food, as an herb, for medicine, as livestock forage, as a dye, and for water purification. Almost

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Ana Regia Alves de Araújo Hendges, Jose Wagner da Silva Melo, Marcelo de Almeida Guimaraes, and Janiquelle da Silva Rabelo

randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of kale grown as a monocrop and intercropped with culinary herbs: monocrop of kale, kale intercropped with coriander, kale intercropped with green onion, kale

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Bridget K. Behe, Patricia Huddleston, and Lynnell Sage

potential customers to attract them to the products offered by horticultural professionals. Do younger potential consumers view the branded herb and vegetable transplants in the same way as Baby Boomers? Literature Review Branding. A brand, as defined by the

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J.R. Schroeder and Alice Le Duc

Ten culinary and ornamental herbs were evaluated for time and quality of rooting of tip cuttings. The taxa included in the study were oregano (Origanum vulgare), lemon thyme (Thymus ×citriodorata), applemint (Mentha suavolens), Persian catnip (Nepeta ×faassenii), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum), caraway thyme (Thymus herba-barona), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), `Blue Wonder' catnip (Nepeta `Blue Wonder'), pineapplemint (Mentha suavolens var. variegata). Four replicates of each species were used. The cuttings, untreated and rooting hormone treated, were placed under intermittent mist, then cuttings potted when a 1- to 1.5-inch root ball had developed. Most of the stock suffered from some chlorosis during rooting; southernwood cuttings particularly displayed severe chlorosis which was overcome with 2 weeks of constant-feed fertilizer after potting. Oregano displayed the best results, rooting in seven days with or without treatment. It produced a sellable 4-inch pot in 31 days from sticking the cuttings. Lemon thyme, applemint, Persian catnip, and lemon balm all rooted in 14 days if treated. No difference was observed in days to rooting between treated and untreated lemon thyme. Untreated cuttings of lemon balm, applemint, and Persian catnip rooted in 25 to 30 days. Treated applemint cuttings not only rooted more quickly but produced a marketable 4-inch pot in significantly less time. Southernwood and caraway thyme rooted in 25 days, with no significant difference between treated and untreated cuttings. Hyssop, pineapplemint, and `Blue Wonder' catnip took about 30 days, also with no significant difference between treated and untreated cuttings.

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Ryan W. Dickson and Paul R. Fisher

hydroponic nutrient solution and soilless substrates. However, there is limited information comparing the pH effects of multiple vegetable and herb species, which would be useful in developing fertilizer and pH management strategies. The objectives of this

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Nina L. Cycholl

A greenhouse study was conducted from Oct. 1999 through Feb. 2000, and Mar. 2001 through Apr. 2001, to determine the potential phytotoxic effects of selected insecticides on Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L. `Santa Cruz'), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum L. `Topaz'), wolly thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. `Wolly'), and nutmeg thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. `Nutmeg'). Insecticides used for the study were Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA, pyrethrin [+ piperonyl butoxide (PBO)], azadirachtin, potassium salts of fatty acids, two rates of cinnamaldehyde, paraffinic oil, and capsaicin. Visual observations of phytotoxicity were made 7 days after the final application. Pyrethrin, potassium salts of fatty acids, and both rates of cinnamaldehyde were consistently more phytotoxic than the other insecticides. Despite the phytotoxic effects from some of the insecticides, new growth that emerged following treatments compensated for the initial damage, and the herbs were still saleable.

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Jeanine M. Davis* and George B. Cox

Weeds are a major concern in the production of many medicinal herbs. Weeds can interfere with the growth of the herb, reducing yields of foliage, flowers, and roots. The presence of weeds in the harvested herb can lessen the value of the herb or render it unmarketable. Weed control on medicinal herbs is difficult because there are few herbicides cleared for use and many herbs are organically grown. In this study, we examined the use of white and black plastic mulches to control weeds in the production of six medicinal herbs in the northern piedmont region of North Carolina. The herbs were grown for 2 years on raised beds with drip-irrigation. The beds were left bare or covered with black plastic mulch or white plastic mulch. The herbs grown were Arnica chamissonis, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea, Leonurus cardiaca, Scutellaria lateriflora, and Spilanthes oleracea. Transplants were field set in May and June. Depending on the particular herb, foliage, and flowers were harvested during both growing seasons and roots were harvested at the end of the second season. Both plastic mulches provided excellent weed control compared to the bare ground treatment. A. chamissonis flower yields were reduced when plants were grown with either plastic mulch. Growth and yield of E. angustifolia, L. cardiaca, and S. lateriflora were unaffected by any mulch treatment. In contrast, total season yields of E. purpurea tops (stems, leaves, and flowers) and roots were higher with both plastic mulches than with the bare ground treatment. Root yields of S. oleracea were higher with the bare ground treatment than with either mulch, but top yields were unaffected by treatment.