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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

(PGR) or biostimulants have been used to improve turfgrass tolerance to drought or heat stress, such as trinexapac-ethyl [TE ( Bian et al., 2009 ; Etemadi et al., 2015 ; Krishnan and Merewitz, 2015 )], abscisic acid [ABA ( Lu et al., 2009

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Emily B. Merewitz and Sha Liu

Schmidt, 2000 ). Oxidative stress and differential antioxidant system activity were two key factors that contributed to differences among cultivars of creeping bentgrass in heat tolerance ( Liu and Huang, 2000 ). In addition to the antioxidant system, the

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Hanseul Park, Eunhye Ko, and Yeh-Jin Ahn

, V. 2000 Chaperone activity of tobacco HSP18, a small heat-shock protein, is inhibited by ATP Plant J. 23 703 713 Song, N. Ahn, Y.-J. 2010 DcHsp17.7, a small heat shock protein from carrot, is upregulated under cold stress and enhances cold tolerance

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Jinyu Wang, Bo Yuan, Yi Xu, and Bingru Huang

both amino acids and proteins between different cultivars of plants contrasting in heat tolerance will enable the identification of the key metabolic processes controlling genetic variations in heat tolerance. Free amino acids are constituents of

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Abbas Lafta, Germán Sandoya, and Beiquan Mou

). Physiological disorders have an important G × E interaction that breeders must take into considerations when designing breeding strategies to improve heat tolerance in lettuce ( Jenni and Hayes, 2010 ; Jenni and Yan, 2009 ). The genetic basis of heat tolerance

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Huifei Shen, Bing Zhao, Jingjing Xu, Xizi Zheng, and Wenmei Huang

Rady, 2014a , 2014b ). Heat tolerance can be improved by genetic selection as well as with the use of exogenous regulators, which aid the adaptation of physiological response in plants. SA and Ca 2+ are recognized as signal molecules known for their

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Mikal E. Saltveit

-shock on chilling-induced injury in excised asparagus tissue, and to use this knowledge to develop a heat-shock treatment that would increase the chilling tolerance of whole asparagus spears. Excised and aged 1-cm segments were initially used for four

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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, and Mostafa Arab

., 2018 ). Turfgrass ecotypes exhibit different levels of tolerance to heat and cold. This has been evaluated by a number of researchers ( Du et al., 2009 ; Jiang and Huang, 2001 ). Turfgrass ecotypes differ greatly in their ability to resist heat and

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Min Wang, Wenrui Liu, Biao Jiang, Qingwu Peng, Xiaoming He, Zhaojun Liang, and Yu’e Lin

protected cultivation ( Wahid et al., 2007 ). Therefore, breeding cucumber cultivars with thermostability is a useful strategy for improving the heat tolerance of plants (Wahid et al., 2007). Furthermore, the identification and characterization of genes

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D.W. Heather, J.B. Sieczka, M.H. Dickson, and D.W. Wolfe

Forty hybrid broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. (Italica Group)] accessions were screened for heat tolerance and holding ability over three planting dates in 1988 at the Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory in Riverhead, N.Y. Holding periods were quantified using the number of consecutive days between the time individual heads reached 10 cm diameter and cutting, which occurred when the sepals had fully expanded and had just begun to separate. In 1989 and 1991, heat stress was applied at various weeks during maturation to determine the most sensitive stage or stages of plant development in terms of reduction in holding period and head weight. Field studies and heat stress experiments indicate that heat stress may be most critical during the time the immature inflorescence measures 5 to 10 mm in diameter. This stage corresponds to ≈ 3 weeks before harvest for summer plantings in the northeastern United States.