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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

and Lopez, 2011 ; Sellmer et al., 2001 ); and foliar sprays ( Gibson and Whipker, 2003 ; Whipker and Dasoju, 1998 ). Foliar sprays have the advantage of being a relatively easy application method, inexpensive to apply with respect to labor, often use

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Karim Keshavarz, Kourosh Vahdati, Mahmoud Samar, Behzad Azadegan, and Patrick H. Brown

( Neilsen et al., 2004 ). Zinc and B have a critical effect on flowering and fruit set and for this reason spring foliar application of these elements are frequently recommended in walnut orchards. In soils with a strong Zn fixation capacity, spring foliar

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Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

the chemical concentration. Foliar application of ethephon to ‘Sonora Jingle’ and ‘Sonora White’ poinsettia exhibited phytotoxicity as indicated by reduced biomass accumulation ( Sun et al., 2011 ). Leaf chlorosis appeared on seashore mallow plants

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Xing-Zheng Fu, Fei Xing, Li Cao, Chang-Pin Chun, Li-Li Ling, Cai-Lun Jiang, and Liang-Zhi Peng

et al., 2002 ; Eman et al., 2007 ; Hanafy Ahmed et al., 2012 ; Swietlik and Laduke, 1991 ), and grapefruit ( Swietlik, 2002 ). Foliar application of Zn is now commonly accepted as a relatively effective method for correcting Zn deficiency in citrus

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Martin M. Maboko and Christian P. Du Plooy

very efficient method of plant nutrition during the intensive growth stages ( Giskin et al., 1984 ; Komosa, 1990 ; Mengel, 2002 ). Foliar fertilizer application is a technique using foliar sprays to provide the nutrients at the actual site of activity

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Yong Zhang, Chunxia Fu, Yujing Yan, Xiaodan Fan, Yan’an Wang, and Ming Li

, 1999 ). Foliar Zn spray was shown to be effective in increasing grain Zn concentration ( Phattarakul et al., 2012 ). Application of Zn spray to apple trees was reported to increase fruit Zn content and to improve apple quality ( Neilsen et al., 2005

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Melissa Bonham, Gerald M. Ghidiu, Erin Hitchner, and Elwood L. Rossell

compare the effectiveness of a seed treatment of fipronil, an in-furrow application of thiamethoxam, and multiple foliar applications of spinosad or diazinon directed at the base of the plant for control of the carrot weevil in processing carrot. Materials

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Theoharis Ouzounis and Gregory A. Lang

cherry, meaning a greater proportion of fruit development occurs during active current-season carbon and N uptake. Foliar applications of urea in fall have had positive effects in deciduous fruit trees (e.g., Titus and Kang, 1982 ). Urea is the most

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Andrew P. Nyczepir and Bruce W. Wood

( Puccinia hemerocallidis Thüm) was suppressed for up to 15 d with a single aqueous foliar application of Ni (as NiSO 4 ) ( Reilly et al., 2005 ). Additionally, incidence of bacterial blight [ Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Ishiyama) Swings et al.] ( Wang

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Robert C. Ebel, Said Hamido, and Kelly T. Morgan

cause defoliation, stem dieback, and fruit abscission ( Gottwald and Graham, 2000 ). Foliar applications of Cu are a popular method for suppressing Xcc as a result of their low cost. Because the life cycle of Xcc is 7 to 21 d ( Brunings and Gabriel