filling, and the seeds are removed for fresh vegetable consumption ( Anthony, 2017 ). The floriculture industry is another unexplored market for faba bean, as it exhibits large variation for many ornamental traits, including flower color. Its flowers are
Jessa Hughes, Hamid Khazaei, and Albert Vandenberg
Jianjun Li, Xiaoya Lian, Chenglin Ye, and Lan Wang
, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States ( Shang et al., 2011 ). The color is considered to be an important indicator in measuring ornamental value and offers a basis for plant classification ( Zhang et al., 2012 ). The flower color is
Jing-jing Zhao, Xun Chen, Li-juan Fan, and Ling Wang
et al., 2014 ; Shang and Wang, 2014 ). Wild resources of I. sanguinea are abundant, but the color is mainly blue violet ( Wang et al., 2016 ). Therefore, the improvement of flower color has become one of the interests in breeding of I. sanguinea
Cecil Pounders, Tim Rinehart, Ned Edwards, and Patricia Knight
now available that vary in ultimate size, growth habit, pest tolerance, and flower color to service various landscape objectives ( Knox, 2000 ). Breeding of crapemyrtle in the United States was primarily pioneered by Otto Spring of Okmulgee, OK, who
Pei-Wen Kan, Yu-Ching Cheng, and Der-Ming Yeh
unclear. The objectives of this study were to 1) understand the inheritance of vein color, flower form, and floral symmetry in our population, and to determine if the vein color character is linked with the flower form or floral symmetry; 2) develop new
Pei Xu, Tingting Hu, Yuejian Yang, Xiaohua Wu, Baogen Wang, Yonghua Liu, Dehui Qin, Jeffrey Ehlers, Timothy Close, Zhongfu Lu, and Guojing Li
to purple as opposed to white flowers of cowpea. In addition, flower and seedcoat colors are considered useful phenotypic markers in breeding because of their stable expression and convenience for observation. In general, the principal flower color of
Gregor Osterc, Maja Mikulic Petkovsek, Franci Stampar, Biljana Kiprovski, Blanka Ravnjak, and Joze Bavcon
( Bavcon, 2009 ). The flower color of common cyclamen varies from pale washed-out pink to very deep rose pink or carmine; sometimes whitish flowers also appear, although pure white flowers are very rare ( Bavcon, 2009 , 2013 ; Bavcon and Ravnjak, 2015
J.J. Hudson, R.G. Nelson, and B.K. Behe
Some consumer preference studies show that red is the most popular flower color. Most data analyses were univariate. Conjoint analysis allows simultaneous determination of attribute preferences without all alternatives being shown. Our purpose was to determine consumer preferences for geranium flower color, leaf variegation, and price simultaneously using conjoint analysis. Two-hundred and four consumers shopping at two Montgomery, Ala., garden centers in Apr. 1993 rated 25 composite geranium photographs. A lavender geranium, `Danielle', with green and white leaf variegation priced at $1.39 was most preferred. Flower color was most important in the purchase decision, followed by price. Leaf variegation was a minor consideration in the purchase decision.
Robert J. Griesbach
Flower color results from the interaction of a pigment (anthocyanin) with a co-pigment (usually a flavonone or flavonol) at a specific pH. At more alkaline pHs (pH 5 to 6), an anthocyanin/co-pigment complex is blue; while at more acidic pHs (pH 3-4), the same anthocyanin/copigment complex is red. In Phalaenopsis pulcherrima, a mutation in pH resulted in a bluer flower color. The difference in pH between the normal-colored magenta flowers (pH 5.8) and mutant violet flowers (pH 5.5) was due to a single co-dominantly inherited gene.
Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff
Two surveys were conducted to determine characteristics important in containerized edible flowers that could be sold in retail outlets. Self-selected participants at Bloomfest at Cobo Hall, Detroit, were assigned to one group that rated the importance of attributes such as color of pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Accord Banner Clear Mixture'), color combinations, container size, and price. Participants assigned to a second group rated color, color combinations, and container size. Flower color was allocated the most points in the purchasing decision (63% for the first group and 95% for the second), with a mixture of all three colors (blue, yellow, and orange) being the most desirable. Responses were subjected to Cluster Analysis (SPSS Inc., Chicago), which resulted in the formation of three distinct groups. The groups were labeled “Likely Buyer” (those who had eaten and purchased edible flowers before and rated characteristics of edible flowers favorably); “Unlikely Consumer” (those who had eaten edible flowers before and had rated characteristics of edible flowers unfavorably); and “Persuadable Garnishers” (those who had not eaten edible flowers before, but were very likely to purchase edible flowers for a meal's garnish).