Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 40 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Alan B. Bennett

Fruit softening is integral to the ripening process. It is an important component of fruit quality, but also initiates deterioration and is a limiting determinant of shelf-life. Intensive research has attempted to elucidate the biochemical and genetic control of fruit softening with the goal of controlling this process as a means to enhance both fruit quality and shelf-life. Current models of fruit softening focus on cell wall disassembly as the major biochemical event regulating fruit softening. Examination of the sequence of cell wall disassembly in ripening Charentais melon fruit suggested that softening could be divided into two distinct phases. The early stage of fruit softening was associated with the regulated disassembly of xyloglucan polymers and the later softening that accompanies over-ripe deterioration was associated with pectin depolymerization. Characterization of cell wall changes in other fruit, including tomato, suggest that this may represent a general model of sequential cell wall disassembly in ripening fruit. Interestingly, the early events of xyloglucan disassembly were not associated with the activation or expression of xyloclucan hydrolases but were associated with the expression of a ripening-regulated expansin gene. Analysis of transgenic tomato fruit with suppressed expansin gene expression or with suppressed polygalacturonase gene expression supports a general model of sequential disassembly of xyloglucan and pectin that control the early and late phases of fruit softening, respectively.

Free access

Wei Li, Rongcai Yuan, Jacqueline K. Burns, L.W. Timmer, and Kuang-Ren Chung

Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds infects citrus flower petals, causing brownish lesions, young fruit drop, production of persistent calyces, and leaf distortion. This suggests that hormones may be involved in symptom development. To identify the types of hormones, cDNA clones encoding proteins related to ethylene and jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) regulation, cell-wall modification, signal transduction, or fruit ripening were used to examine differential gene expressions in calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour) and/or `Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) after C. acutatum infection. Northern-blot analyses revealed that the genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase and 12-oxophytodienoate required for ethylene and JA biosynthesis, respectively, were highly up-regulated in both citrus species. Both gene transcripts increased markedly in petals, young fruit and stigmas, but not in calyces. The transcripts of the genes encoding IAA glucose transferase and auxin-responsive GH3-like protein, but not IAA amino acid hydrolyase, also markedly increased in both species 5 days after inoculation. The expansin and chitinase genes were slightly up-regulated, whereas the senescence-induced nuclease and ß-galactosidase genes were down-regulated in calamondin. No differential expression of transcripts was detected for the genes encoding expansin, polygalacturonase, and serine-threonine kinase in sweet orange. As compared to the water controls, infection of C. acutatum increased ethylene and IAA levels by 3- and 140-fold. In contrast, abscisic acid (ABA) levels were not significantly changed. Collectively, the results indicate that infection by C. acutatum of citrus flowers triggered differential gene expressions, mainly associated with IAA, ethylene, and JA production and regulation, and increased hormone concentrations, consistent with the hypothesis of the involvement of phytohormones in postbloom fruit drop.

Free access

Adirek Rugkong, Jocelyn K.C. Rose, and Chris B. Watkins

Tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) can develop mealiness and enhanced softening when exposed to chilling temperatures during storage, but the involvement of cell wall-associated enzymes in chilling injury development is not well understood. To study this aspect of injury development, we have exposed breaker-stage `Trust' tomato fruit to a chilling temperature of 3 °C for 0, 7, 14, and 21 days followed by storage at 20 °C for 12 days. Ethylene production was not affected by storage except after 21 days where production was greater at 20 °C. Exposure of fruit to chilling temperatures delayed the ripening-related color change (chroma and hue) and initially increased compression values, but percent extractable juice was not affected consistently. Increased polygalacturonase (PG) activity during ripening was reduced by about 50% after 7 days at 3 °C, and further inhibited with increasing storage periods. In contrast, the activities of pectin methylesterase (PME) and α-galactosidase were not significantly affected by the cold treatments. β-Galactosidase activity was greater in all chilled fruit compared with fruit ripened at harvest, whereas endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity was lower after 21 days at 3 °C. In chilled fruits, transcript accumulations for PG, PME (PME1.9), and expansin (Expt.1) were lower during storage at 20 °C compared with those of nonchilled fruits. Transcript accumulation for β-galactosidase (TBG4) was affected only at 14 days of cold storage, when transcript accumulation decreased. Cold treatment increased transcript accumulation of endo-β-1,4-glucanase (Cel1) after 12 days at 20 °C and decreased transcript accumulation after 7 days and 21 days at 21 °C. Cell wall analyses to investigate relationships among enzyme activities and cell wall disassembly are ongoing.

Free access

J.K. Burns, C. Arias, I. Kostenyuk, and M. Obraztnova

The process of abscission results in shedding of plant parts such as leaves, fruit, flowers, and in citrus, shoot tips and entire shoots. Growers must successfully manage abscission in their operations to avoid unnecessary defoliation or loss of yield due to floral abscission or preharvest fruit drop. Conversely, abscission enhancement may be desired during harvest. Yet despite its importance to horticulture, little is known about mechanisms that control abscission. We know that abscission can be induced by ethylene and altered to some extent by auxin. Over the years, many physiological and anatomical events of abscission have been described. For example, cellulase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase genes are induced during abscission, and they are thought to have a role in alteration and depolymerization of middle lamella polysaccharides located in the abscission zone area. Other genes, such as those associated with the process of pathogen resistance, are also induced during abscission. We are interested in using tools of molecular biology to examine abscission-related gene expression prior to organ separation in Florida field-grown Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and greenhouse-grown calamondin (Citrus madurensis Loureiro) citrus trees. Subtractive cDNA library screening and differential display were used to examine gene expression in fruit, leaf and floral abscission zones 6, 24 and 48 h after induction of abscission with 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole or Ethrel® (Rhone-Poulenc, [2-chloroethyl] phosphoric acid). Some isolated cDNAs encoded polypeptides with no significant matches in the database or share significant similarities with unknown proteins isolated from Arabidopsis. Other cDNAs encoded polypeptides with similarity to cell wall modifying proteins such as polygalacturonases and expansin, PR proteins such as chitinase, proteins associated with secondary and xenobiotic metabolism such as amine oxidase, benzoquinone reductase, caffeic acid methyltransferase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and squalene synthase, and proteins associated with signal transduction such as several serine/threonine kinases. Temporal and spatial expression of these genes and others will be presented. Use of this information to target potential points of abscission control will be discussed.

Free access

Harpartap S. Mann, Jennifer J. Alton, SooHee Kim, and Cindy B.S. Tong

gene for arabinofuranosidase, MdAFase1 , has been cloned from overripe ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruit (National Center for Biotechnology Information accession number AY309436). Expansins are enzymes that allow loosening of the cell wall by breaking

Free access

Arthur Villordon, Don LaBonte, Nurit Firon, and Edward Carey

rearrangement. It is of interest that EXP14, an expansin-like gene that mediates cell-wall loosening, is involved in promoting LR emergence in Arabidopsis ( Lee et al., 2013 ). An expansin precursor has previously been identified in sweetpotato and it has been

Free access

Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Carolyn F. Ross

Map position and functional allelic diversity of Md-Exp7 a new putative expansin gene associated with softening in apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) and pear ( Pyrus communis) fruit Tree Genet. Genomes 4 575 586 Evans, K.M. Brutcher, L.J. Konishi

Free access

Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Marc A. Dilley, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Cameron P. Peace

-Exp7 a new putative expansin gene associated with softening in apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) and pear ( Pyrus communis) fruit Tree Genet. Genomes. 4 575 586 Evans, K.M. Brutcher, L.J. Konishi, B.S. Barritt, B.H. 2010a Correlation of sensory

Free access

Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Marc A. Dilley, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Cameron P. Peace

functional allelic diversity of Md-Exp7, a new putative expansin gene associated with fruit softening in apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) and pear ( Pyrus communis ) Tree Genet. Genomes 4 575 586 Mann, H.S. Alton, J

Full access

Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, Tripti Vashisth, Mercy A. Olmstead, James W. Olmstead, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

) is provided. WRKY and EXPANSIN transcription factor families. Several genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed as a result of HC application at both 3 and 7 DAT ( Supplemental Table 3 ). WRKY is a TF family of