mean ± se (n = 3). Table 5. Maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax ), maximum rate of electron transport at saturating irradiance (J max ), and CO 2 compensation point (CCP) of tung tree seedlings grown under different light treatments. Leaf anatomic
Ze Li, Kai Shi, Fanhang Zhang, Lin Zhang, Hongxu Long, Yanling Zeng, Zhiming Liu, Genhua Niu, and Xiaofeng Tan
Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen
Bench-grafted Fuji/M26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees were fertigated with different concentrations of nitrogen by using a modified Hoagland's solution for 45 days. CO2 assimilation and actual photosystem II (PSII) efficiency in response to incident photon flux density (PFD) were measured simultaneously in recent fully expanded leaves under low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm) conditions. A single curvilinear relationship was found between true quantum yield for CO2 assimilation and actual PSII efficiency for leaves with a wide range of leaf N content. The relationship was linear up to a quantum yield of approximately 0.05 mol CO2/mol quanta, then became curvilinear with a further rise in quantum yield in response to decreasing PFD. This relationship was subsequently used as a calibration curve to assess the rate of linear electron transport associated with rubisco and partitioning of electron flow between CO2 assimilation and photorespiration in different N leaves in response to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) under normal O2 conditions. Both the rate of linear electron flow, and the rate to CO2 or O2 increased with increasing leaf N at any given Ci, but the percentage of linear electron flow to CO2 assimilation remained the same regardless of leaf N content. As Ci increased, the percentage of linear electron flow to CO2 assimilation increased. In conclusion, the relationship between actual PSII efficiency and quantum yield for CO2 assimilation and the partitioning of electron flow between CO2 assimilation and photorespiration are not affected by N content in apple leaves.
Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen
Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO2 assimilation in response to photon flux density (PFD) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were monitored simultaneously in leaves of apple, pear, apricot, and cherry with a combined system for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange. When photorespiration was minimized by low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm), a linear relationship was found between PSII efficiency and the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation with altering PFD, indicating CO2 assimilation in this case is closely linked to PSII activity. As PFD increased from 80 to 1900 μmol·m–2·s–1 under ambient CO2 (350 ppm) and O2 (21%) conditions, PSII efficiency decreased by increased nonphotochemical quenching and decreased concentration of open PSII reaction centers. The rate of linear electron transport showed a similar response to PFD as CO2 assimilation. As Ci increased from 50 to 1000 ppm under saturating PFD (1000 μmol·m–2·s–1) and ambient O2, PSII efficiency was increased initially by decreased nonphotochemical quenching and increased concentration of open PSII reaction centers and then leveled off with further a rise in Ci. CO2 assimilation reached a plateau at a higher Ci than PSII efficiency because increasing Ci diverted electron flow from O2 reduction to CO2 assimilation by depressing photorespiration. It is concluded that PSII efficiency is regulated by both nonphotochemical quenching and concentration of open PSII reaction centers in response to light and CO2 to meet the requirement for photosynthetic electron transport.
Hector Valenzuela, Stacy Riede, and Harry Yamamoto
Portable chlorophyll fluorometers have made it possible to evaluate the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem 11 for vegetable crops under ambient conditions. A sampling protocol was first established to eliminate variability due to positioning of the fiber optics in relation to the leaf, leaf selection, and natural environmental variability. Fluorescence parameters of the quantum yield of noncyclic electron transport (DF/Fm') and electron transport rate (ETR) were taken from several economically important vegetables under ambient conditions between 11 and 14 h. The objective of the second part of the study was to conduct in situ chlorophyll fluorescence and biomass determinations as affected by salt stress and N deficiency. DF/Fm' and ETR were studied in rhizobium inoculated, noninoculated and inorganic N-fed soybean and differences in fluorescence were related to yield. The influence that salt stress, and several N rates have on fluorescence photochemical quenching (qP) and nonphotochemical quenching (qN), NPQ ([Fm-Fm']/Fm'), DF/Fm' and ETR for hydroponically grown lettuce will also be presented.
David M. Hunter and John T.A. Proctor
Paclobutrazol applied as a soil drench at 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg a.i./g soil reduced photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate of leaves formed before paclobutrazol treatment within 3 to 5 days of treatment and the reductions were maintained for 15 days after treatment. The percentage of recently assimilated 14C exported from the source leaf was reduced only at the highest paclobutrazol dose, and there was little effect of treatment on the partitioning of exported 14C between the various sinks. In response to increasing doses of paclobutrazol, particularly at the higher doses, an increasing proportion of recent photoassimilates was maintained in a soluble form in all plant components. Reduced demand for photoassimilates as a result of the inhibition of vegetative growth may have contributed to a reduction in photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate, but this reduction in photosynthesis rate could not be attributed to a feedback inhibition caused by a buildup of starch in the leaves. Paclobutrazol had only a minor effect, if any, on photosynthetic electron transport. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
William L. Bauerle* and Nilakantan S. Rajaraman
A process-based whole-tree simulation model was used to simulate crown transpiration in several species and cultivars of nursery crops. To validate estimates, we measured transpiration in cultivars of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) to determine if there were differences in intraspecific variation that could affect estimates of whole tree water use. We used a combination of field and published data to parameterize additional species and cultivar differences in response to environment and/or management. The different water use estimates of the species and cultivars were related to their genetic variability in leaf biochemical limitations, where the relationship between stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate may be so closely matched that stomatal conductance appears to adjust itself to the photosynthetic capacity of the species or cultivar. Model predictions indicated that species and cultivars that had higher biochemical limitation regulated transpiration by down regulation of the rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and coupled photosynthetic electron transport (Jmax), whereas the reverse occurred as Vcmax and Jmax increased. Our model simulations show significant variation in transpiration due to both inter and intraspecific variation in biochemical limitations. These results suggest that models that do not account for inter and intraspecific variation, to reflect genetic variation in physiology, may over or under estimate transpiration. Therefore, physiology-based species and cultivar variation should be part of process-based simulations that assess nursery water use. Results also suggest that effects of leaf dark respiration adaptation interactions can concurrently reduce variation in water use estimates.
It has long been observed that chilling injury of warm-season fruit and vegetables during postharvest storage as well as during early seedling growth can be mitigated by maintaining high relative humidities during the exposure to low temperatures. A strong correlation between transpiration rates and chilling injury was observed among the fruit of several PI lines of greenhouse-type and field-type Cucumis sativus L. differing in their susceptibility to chilling injury. Transpiration rates and chilling injury of the F1s from crosses between resistant and susceptible lines were intermediate. Immature fruit lost moisture at faster rates and chill injured more severely than mature fruit of the same genotype. Coatings, applied as postharvest treatments to the fruit either reduced or increased chilling injury depending on the concentration applied and whether or not they retarded or enhanced moisture loss during low temperature storage. Fruit coated with surfactant-based waxes lost more moisture and developed more chilling injury than uncoated fruit or fruit coated with carnauba wax or polyethylene emulsions. The causal relationship between transpiration at low temperatures and chilling injury is not known, primarily because the precise mechanism of chilling injury has not been unequivocally delineated. The manifestation of chilling injury, however, occurs concomitantly with an increase in respiratory rate. We have postulated that chilling injury is caused by active oxygen species generated when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. In studies with germinating seed, desiccation injury was associated with free radicals generated by mitochondria. Thus, desiccation at low temperatures may intensify respiratory activity resulting in the generation of oxygen free radicals and extensive peroxidative damage to cellular membranes and enzymes.
S. Kalantari, G. Samson, J. Makhlouf, and J. Arul
The application of ultraviolet light on fruit and vegetables is a promising new method to control storage diseases and to delay the onset of senescence. In this investigation, we studied the effects of hormic dose (1,4 Merg•cm-2) of UV-radiation on the ripening of tomato pericarp discs by measuring different characteristics of ripening and senescence during storage. We observed that UV-treatment induced significant delays of the red color development, chlorophyll degradation, and lycopene production compared to control discs. UV-treatment also retarded the decline of the chlorophyll-a fluorescence ratios Fv: Fm and *F : Fm′, two characteristics related, respectively, to the maximum and operational quantum yield of photosystem II electron transport. Furthermore, the climacteric ethylene peak was delayed in the treated discs. However, UV-treatment did not alter textural changes, and the respiratory climacteric peaks were observed concomitantly for both treated and untreated tomato discs. However, the respiratory rate was consistently higher in treated discs. These results indicate that UV irradiation of tomato pericarp discs delays some processes of ripening associated with chloroplast to chromoplast transition whereas other ripening processes seem unaffected.
Joo Hyun Lee, Yong-Beom Lee, and Kyu Sook Lee
Wasabi japonica plantlets were acclimatized in a hydroponic system to determine effective procedures. The plantlets were cultured on solid Murashige-Skoog medium with 3% sucrose. Shoots that formed roots were transplanted into hydroponic systems: 1) acclimatization in ebb-and-flow (EBB) for subirrigation (medium: granulated rockwool and coir); and 2) acclimatization in deep flow technique (DFT). The plantlets were acclimatized for 5 weeks under two irradiance treatments, 50 and 300 mmol·m-2·s-1. Photosynthetic capacity in high PPF was higher than that in low PPF during acclimatization. Electron transport rate from PS II (ETR) and biomass production increased significantly with increased light availability. The fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area of plantlets in high PPF were higher than those in low PPF. In particular, the dry weight and ETR of the plantlets grown in high PPF increased more than twice as much as those in low PPF. At 50 mmol·m-2·s-1 PPF, growth indexes, such as number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight, were higher in EBB (granulated rockwool) > EBB (coir culture) > DFT. At 300 mmol·m-2·s-1 PPF, those indexes were higher in DFT > EBB (granulated rockwool) > EBB (coir). The Wasabi japonica plantlets acclimatized in a hydroponic system also had a superior performance when they were transferred to the field.
Krishna S. Nemali and Marc W. van Iersel
Optimal substrate volumetric water content (θ) and drought tolerance of impatiens, petunia, salvia, and vinca were investigated by growing plants under four constant levels of θ (0.09, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.32 m3·m-3). Gas exchange, quantum efficiency (ΦPSII), electron transport rate (ETR), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and leaf water potential (ϒ) were measured for all species, and response of photosynthesis (Pn) to internal CO2 concentration (Ci) was studied in petunia and salvia. Leaf photosynthesis (Pmax) was highest at a θ of 0.22 m3·m-3 for all species and did not differ between a θ of 0.15 and 0.22 m3·m-3 for vinca and petunia. The Pn-Ci response curves for petunia were almost identical at a θ of 0.22 and 0.15 m3·m-3. Regardless of species, ETR and ΦPSII were highest and NPQ was lowest at a θ of 0.22 m3·m-3. Based on these results, a θ of 0.22 m3·m-3 for salvia and impatiens and a slightly lower θ of 0.15 m3·m-3 for vinca and petunia, is optimal. Mean osmotic potential in all treatments was lower in vinca and salvia and resulted in higher turgor potential in these species than other species. Analysis of Pn-Ci response curves indicated that Pn at a θ of 0.09 m3·m-3 was limited by both gas phase (stomatal and boundary layer) and non-gas phase (mesophyll) resistance to CO2 transfer in salvia. At the lowest θ level, Pn in petunia was only limited by gas phase resistance, indicating that absence of mesophyll resistance during drought may play a role in the drought tolerance of petunia.