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Rozlaily Zainol, Dennis P. Stimart, and Ray F. Evert

Anatomical analysis was performed using a double-flowered mutant of Nicotiana alata Link & Otto. Flower doubleness resulted from petaloid modification of the androecium. Vascularized petal-like outgrowths arose from the anther, connective, and filament of the stamen. The vasculature in petaloid outgrowths from the anther and upper part of the filament originated from and was continuous with the vascular bundle of the filament. In contrast, the vascular bundles formed in the outgrowths from the lower part of the filament developed independently of the vascular bundle of the filament and were not connected to it at any time. Emergences consisting of epidermal and ground parenchyma tissue and lacking vascularization arose from the filament.

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Rodney B. Jones, Margrethe Serek, Chen-Lan Kuo, and Michael S. Reid

Petal opening and senescence of cut Gladiolus, Iris, and Narcissus flowers was significantly inhibited by continuous treatment with 1 mm CHI. Vase life was doubled in individual flowers treated when half-open, and a similar effect was detected after pulsing cut gladiolus spikes with 1 mm CHI for 24 hours. Petal wilting was markedly inhibited in flowers treated with CHI and was confined to the outer 2 to 3 mm of petal margins as opposed to the entire petal in untreated flowers. These effects were not seen, however, in CHI-treated cut tulip flowers, where vase life was significantly reduced. CHI markedly inhibited protein synthesis in Gladiolus `New Rose' florets (a decrease of >60%). Treatment with a potent biocide, DICA, did not increase vase life; therefore, CHI was not prolonging flower longevity by preventing microbial growth in the vase solution. The results indicate that de novo protein synthesis is required for bulb flower development and opening and petal wilting and senescence. Chemical names used: cycloheximide (CHI), sodium dichloroisocyanuric acid (DICA).

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S. Rajapakse, L. E. Belthoff, R. E. Ballard, R. Scorza, W.V. Baird, R. Monet, and A. G. Abbott

We have constructed a genetic linkage map of peach consisting of RFLP, RAPD, and morphological markers, based on 78 F2 individuals derived from the self-fertilization of four F1 individuals originating from a cross between `New Jersey Pillar' and KV 77119. This progeny set was chosen because parental genotypes exhibit variation in canopy shape, fruit flesh color, and flower petal color, size, and number. The segregation of 81 markers comprised of RFLP, RAPD and morphological loci was analyzed. Low copy genomic and cDNA probes were used in the RFLP analysis. The current genetic map for the WV family contains 57 markers assigned to 9 linkage groups, which cover 520 cM of the peach nuclear genome. The average distance between two adjacent markers was 9 cM. Linkage was detected between Pillar (Pi) and double flowers (Dl). RFLP markers loosely linked to Pi, flesh color (Y), and white flower (W) loci were found. Twenty-four markers remain unassigned.

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Daike Tian and Ken Tilt

2010. It is a large-sized lotus with a double pink flower composed of up to 1650 petals. It can be planted in ornamental ponds, containers, or grown potentially as a cut flower. Origin ‘Zhizun Qianban’ (‘ ’ in Chinese characters), which means “ultimate

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Meriam Karlsson and Jeffrey Werner

Flowering in response to day length was identified for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. `Pacino Gold'). Germination and seedling development occurred at 20 °C and long days (ld, 16 hours) following direct seeding into 10-cm pots. Sixteen days after seeding, plants were placed at ld or short days (sd, 8 hours), 20 °C and 8 mol·d-1·m-2. Flowering was recorded at the stage of reflexed petals after 48 sd. At the time of flowering in sd, flower buds were of minute size under ld. Plants started at ld, and moved to sd after 1, 2, or 3 weeks, flowered at similar times as those grown under uninterrupted sd conditions. Four initial weeks of ld delayed flower development with 7 days, compared to a continuous sd environment. On the other hand, 2 to 3 weeks of initial sd followed by ld hastened flowering with 5 to 10 days. With increasing number of early ld from 1 to 4 weeks, plant height at flowering doubled from 20 to 40 cm. Average plant height in continuous sd was 18 cm. Plants grown exclusively or moved to ld after 1 to 4 weeks of sd were similar in height to plants finished at sd with 4 initial weeks of ld. Combinations of sd and ld may be used to manage height and rate of development in the sunflower `Pacino Gold'.

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W. A. Mackay, C.M. McKenney, P.F. Colbaugh, S.A. George, J.J. Sloan, and R.I. Cabrera

To enlarge the palette of environmentally-responsible landscape plants, 117 garden rose cultivars were evaluated under minimal input conditions. Other than mulching and irrigation, no other inputs were provided, including no fertilization and no pesticide applications. Plants were established in completely randomized blocks with four reps in the spring of 1998 with data collection beginning in 2000 and continued through 2002. Data on overall performance (an index comprised of flower number, percent of plant covered with flowers and plant growth) and relative chlorophyll content were collected the first and third week of each month from April through October. Disease ratings or incidence ratings were collected for Diplocarpon rosae Wolf (black spot), Alternaria sp. (petal blight) and Sphaerotheca pannosa (powdery mildew). Statistical analysis was performed on the mean data for all dates. `Knockout' was the top rose for overall quality with little or no disease observed, high foliage quality, and continuous flowers from spring until late in the fall. `Knockout' also ranked among the top rose cultivars in terms of overall nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, and Fe) in new growth tissue. Most of the hybrid tea roses such as `Peace' and `Double Delight' died in at least three blocks due to disease and a lack of vigor.

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Brent K. Harbaugh, Michelle L. Bell, and Rongna Liang

Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf). Shinn.] is emerging as an important cut flower in the United States while in European and Asian markets it is already listed among the top ten cut flowers. Many new cultivars have been released in the United States within the last 5 years, but comparative performance trials of these cultivars have been lacking. This trial evaluated 47 cultivars of lisianthus representing series (cultivar groups) that were marketed in the United States in 1998. Evaluations were made for rosetting, plug performance, cut-flower characteristics (vegetative and flowering attributes) as well as postharvest longevity of cut flowers. Significant differences among cultivars were found for all of the attributes evaluated. `Malibu Purple', `Catalina Blue Blush', and `Alice Pink' were selected as the best performers in the seedling (plug) stage since they had less than 5% rosettes, large leaves and a vigorous root system. Cultivars were placed in classes based on flower color, flower size, and number of petals (single or double flowers). Cultivars were ranked for each of the attributes and the total rank sum of all attributes (TRS) was used to select the best in class. Cultivars selected as best in class were `Malibu Purple', `Malibu Blue Blush', `Alice Purple', `Balboa Blue', `Avila Blue Rim', `Mellow Pink', `Flamenco Wine Red', `Flamenco Rose Rim', `Alice Pink', `Avila Rose' and `Echo Pink', `Alice White', and `Mariachi White'.

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Chitose Honsho, Keizo Yonemori, Akira Sugiura, Songpol Somsri, and Suranant Subhadrabandhu

Flower bud differentiation and the flowering habit of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) `Mon Thong' from budbreak to anthesis were investigated at the Chantaburi Horticultural Research Center in Thailand. Clusters of flower buds appeared at the end of November on primary or secondary scaffold branches near where a flower cluster occurred the previous year. Anatomical observations revealed that the development of floral organs was acropetal; the five fused epicalyx forming a large, elongated envelope enclosing the sepals, petals, stamen and fused multi-carpellate pistil. Floral organ development was completed in early January. The mature flower bud more than doubled in size one day before anthesis, with anthesis starting around 1600 hr and ending ≈1900 hr. The anthers did not dehisce until the completion of flowering. This change induced heterostyly in this cultivar, which promoted out-crossing by reducing the possibility of self-pollination. Aromatic nectar that attracted insects to the flower was secreted during anthesis. This is the first report to have clarified the overall flowering process in durian and provides the basic information for elucidating reproductive biology of durian in future research.

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Junjun Fan, Wangxiang Zhang, Donglin Zhang, Ting Zhou, Hao Jiang, Guibin Wang, and Fuliang Cao

crabapple cultivar released from the flowering crabapple breeding program of Nanjing Forestry University in Jiangsu, China. It is an excellent double-flowered flowering crabapple cultivar with three to five layers of wrinkled petals. Origin In Fall 2009, we

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Wenjing Li, Zihang Zhang, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao

showed spreading habit, vigor, continuously purple-red leaves, double flowers with purple-red petals, long flowering periods, purple-red fruit peel and flesh, high levels of anthocyanin, and high drought and cold resistance. ‘DF-mutant-08’ was selected as