A spring application of 19 g CO(15NH2)2/plant at 2.49% atom percent enrichment was made in Mar. 1995 on 2-year old, field-grown `Arapaho' blackberry plants. Individual plants were harvested during the study at preharvest (late May), postharvest (mid-July), and early dormancy (late October). The following plant parts were separated for analysis: roots, primocanes, floricanes, primocane leaves, floricane leaves, fruits. Soil samples were also taken from within the drip line of the plants at each sample date. Plant tissues were washed, dry weights measured and ground for acid digestion, total N determination and 15N analysis. Samples were measured for 15N atom percent abundance by a isotope ratio spectrometer. The whole-plant dry matter in creased during the season from 53 g in May to 153 g in October. Plants sampled in October had a greater amount of dry matter in roots than in any other tissue. There was a decreased total N content in all vegetative tissues (leaves and canes) from May to October. The maximum fertilizer 15N percent recovery was 43% (October) and the minimum was 12% (May) from the total plant tissues. Compared to other plant tissues, floricane leaves and primocanes recovered significantly more fertilizer 15N in May, while roots and primocane leaves recovered more in October. Floricanes and fruits did not increase in 15N levels during the sampling period. Fertilizer 15N recovered in the soil amounted to 35.5% of the applied with 4.5% found in the inorganic fraction, 31% in the organic fraction. There were no statistical differences in percent recovery of the fertilizer 15N among sample dates in the topsoil. October 15N percent recovery was much lower than May in the subsoil, indicating a downward movement of N by leaching. Averaging all sample dates, 59.5% of the labeled fertilizer was accounted for in the plant and soil, with the remaining portion probably lost via volatilization, leaching, and/or denitrification.
J. Naraguma, J.R. Clark, and R.J. Norman
Haiyan Wang, Ran Chen, Yuefan Sheng, Weitao Jiang, Rong Zhang, Xuesen Chen, Xiang Shen, Chengmiao Yin, and Zhiquan Mao
chosen and transplanted into a mud pot containing 7.0 kg of test soil. Two seedlings were planted per pot, and each pot received the same fertilizer and water management regimen. Destructive sampling in mid-Aug. 2018 was done to examine the differences in
Dale E. Kester, Tom Gradziel, and Karen Pelletreau
A model for the epidemiology of noninfectious bud-failure (Fenton, et al., 1988) predicts that BF-potcntial is universally present within specific almond cultivars with variation existing in the rate and pattern of development of BF phenotypes. Orchard surveys of Carmel in 1990 and 1991 involving four nursery sources showed a trend of 2 per cent of affected trees after one year in the orchard, increasing to 4 per cent in the second, with prospects for gradual increase with time. All four sources produced some BF trees with significant differences among sources. A study has been started to identify the source and pattern of BF-potential within the entire Carmel cultivar. It has two parts. A pedigree analysis of propagation sources from eleven commercial nurseries traces their genealogy from the original seedling plant first discovered in 1947. A propagation test of approximately 3000 individual trees representative of the propagation sources of all eleven commercial nurseries has been established. The origin of each progeny tree has been maintained in respect to source, tree, budstick and individual bud location on the stick. Expression of bud-failure symptoms in individual trees will identify the source and pattern of BF-potential within the cultivar.
D.J. Makus and J.R. Morris
Supplemental Ca was supplied to `Cardinal' and `Fern' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) plants grown in an Enders clayey silt loam soil as a foliar spray of Ca glutarate, as soil incorporated gypsum, as fertigated calcium nitrate (CaNO3), or as a combination of the above. Controls received no Ca. Individual fruits were partitioned into six parts: proximal, distal, inner and outer receptacle, and proximal and distal achenes. Mineral nutrient concentrations (dry mass basis) found in the inner and outer receptacle, and in achenes were, in descending order, K, P, Ca, Mg, Al, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, and Cu; K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, B, and Cu; and Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Cu, and B, respectively. Many nutrients, including Ca, tended to occur in greater concentrations in the proximal portion of the fruit than in the distal part. With the exception of Al, nutrient concentration gradients were lowest in the inner receptacle. Fruit Ca concentrations were highest in achenes and lowest in inner receptacle tissue. Differences among cultivars in Ca concentration were found in achenes but not in receptacle tissue. Calcium treatment had no effect on receptacle tissue Ca concentrations, regardless of cultivar, but CaNO3 and combination treatments increased Ca concentrations in the achenes in the proximal half of `Cardinal' fruit. Concentrations of all other nutrients except Mn were unaffected by supplemental Ca treatments.
Genhua Niu, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson
Pansy [Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Delta Yellow Blotch' (Yellow) and `Delta Primrose Blotch' (Primrose)] plants were grown in a greenhouse under two CO2 concentrations [ambient (≈400 μmol·mol-1) and enriched (≈600 μmol·mol-1)], three daily light integrals (DLI; 4.1, 10.6, and 15.6 mol·m-2·d-1), and nine combinations of day and night temperatures created by moving plants every 12 h among three temperatures (15, 20, and 25 °C). Time to flower decreased and rate of flower development increased as plant average daily temperature (ADT) increased at all DLIs for Yellow or at high and medium DLIs for Primrose. Increasing the DLI from 4.1 to 10.6 mol·m-2·d-1 also decreased time to flower by 4 and 12 days for Yellow and Primrose, respectively. Both cultivars' flower size and Yellow's dry weight [(DW); shoot, flower bud, and total] decreased linearly as plant ADT increased at high and medium DLIs, regardless of how temperature was delivered during day and night. DW in Yellow increased 50% to 100% when DLI increased from 4.1 to 10.6 mol·m-2·d-1 under both CO2 concentrations. Flower size in Yellow and Primrose increased 25% under both CO2 conditions as DLI increased from 4.1 to 10.6 mol·m-2·d-1, but there was no increase between 10.6 and 15.6 mol·m-2·d-1, regardless of CO2 concentration. Plant height and flower peduncle length in Yellow increased linearly as the difference between day and night temperatures (DIF) increased; the increase was larger under lower than higher DLIs. The ratio of leaf length to width (LL/LW) and petiole length in Yellow increased as DIF increased at medium and low DLIs. Carbon dioxide enrichment increased flower size by 4% to 10% and DW by 10% to 30% except for that of the shoot at medium DLI, but did not affect flower developmental rate or morphology. DW of vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant was correlated closely with photothermal ratio, a parameter that describes the combined effect of temperature and light.
Barbara J. Smith
, cultural, and pathogenic variation among Colletotrichum species isolated from strawberry Plant Dis. 74 69 76 Smith, B.J. Black, L.L. 1991 Greenhouse efficacy of fungicides for control of anthracnose crown rot of
John R. Stommel, Gordon J. Lightbourn, Brenda S. Winkel, and Robert J. Griesbach
Pigmentation of plant vegetative tissue, including leaves, stems, and roots and reproductive tissue in flowers and fruit, is attributed to anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments. These colored compounds are produced by independent metabolic pathways
Satoru Motoki, Takumi Taguchi, Ayaka Kato, Katsuhiro Inoue, and Eiji Nishihara
investigation. Table 1. Differences in growth-inhibitory activity, mineral contents, functional components, and water content among different asparagus plant parts. Growth-inhibitory activity The experiment was conducted in accordance with the
Kwang Jin Kim, Mi Jung Kil, Jeong Seob Song, Eun Ha Yoo, Ki-Cheol Son, and Stanley J. Kays
suggested that the aerial plant parts play only very minor role in formaldehyde metabolism because there was little difference between the day and night in removal. However, the aerial plant parts obviously removed formaldehyde during the day ( Fig. 1
Nicolas Tremblay, Edith Fallon, and Noura Ziadi
-field variations in plant-available soil N are affected by differences in soil characteristics, they are hard to predict from readily mapped variables. Delin and Lindén (2002) found large variations in net N mineralization (Nm) both within field and between years