The rate of internodal extension of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. cv. Envy) under various temperature and photoperiod conditions was studied to determine whether reproducible diurnal patterns of growth existed and whether any such patterns conformed to an endogenous circadian rhythm. Stem growth was monitored continuously by means of linear displacement voltage transducers. At constant temperature and under 11 h light/13 h dark photoperiod, stem elongation followed a clearly defined pattern consisting of a peak in rate immediately after the dark to light transition and then a gradual decline until the start of the dark period. During darkness, elongation rate increased and reached a maximum approximately 8 hours after the light to dark transition. This pattern differed when light period temperature was either above or below dark period temperature, but these patterns were also highly reproducible. When plants were subjected to continuous light at constant temperature, the rhythm of stem elongation initially showed a periodicity of approximately 27 hours. After 2 or 3 diurnal cycles the rhythm was less distinct and the rate became essentially constant. Furthermore, the interruption of a long period of continuous light with a 13 h dark period did not restore the rhythm. These findings do not support the existence of an endogenous circadian rhythm of stem elongation. Diurnally-cued rhythms do, however, exist and can be modified by temperature.
Jason Tutty and Peter Hicklenton
Ann I. King and Michael S. Reid
Seedlings of six cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) showed differences in chilling sensitivity depending on the time during the diurnal light/dark cycle when they were placed at low temperature. In all cultivars, sensitivity was highest when the chilling exposure started at the end of a dark period, although the magnitude of the diurnal variation differed among the cultivars. When roots were removed prior to or just after chilling, injury also appeared earlier in seedlings whose chilling was started at the end of a dark period. Seedlings chilled starting at different times during the diurnal cycle had similar stomatal conductance values during chilling. It appears that diurnal changes in chilling sensitivity are not due to altered root function during or following chilling exposure, nor to variations in desiccation during the chilling period resulting from diurnal differences in stomatal conductance.
N.C. Yorio, G.W. Stutte, G.D. Goins, D.S. de Villiers, and R.M. Wheeler
The effects of planting density and short-term changes in photoperiod on the growth and photosynthesis of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. Two cultivars of bean (cv. Etna, a dry bean variety; cv. Hystyle, a snap bean variety) were grown using nutrient film technique hydroponics in a walk-in growth chamber with a 12 h/12 h (light/dark) photoperiod and a corresponding thermoperiod of 28/24 °C (light/dark) and constant 65% relative humidity. Lighting for the chamber consisted of VHO fluorescent lamps and irradiance at canopy level was 400 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF. For each cultivar, plants were grown at densities of 16 or 32 plants/m2. Short-term photoperiod changes were imposed during vegetative growth (21-29 DAP) and pod-fill (42-57 DAP). From the base 12 h/12h (light/dark) photoperiod, lighting in the chamber was cycled to provide 18 h/06 h (light/dark) or 24 h/0 h(continuous light) for 48 h. Diurnal single leaf net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and net assimilation vs. internal CO2 (Aci) measurements were taken during the short-term photoperiod adjustments. Results showed that there was no difference between cultivars or planting density with regard to total biomass or single leaf photosynthetic rates, but cv. Etna produced 35% more edible biomass than cv. Hystyle. Additionally, there was no effect of short-term photoperiod adjustment on single leaf Pn or Aci.
Michael E. Compton
Several methods have been published on shoot regeneration from watermelon cotyledon explants. The major differences in regeneration protocols include the light environment in which seeds are germinated and the cotyledon region used. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the two main protocols for plant regeneration and develop one general procedure. To fulfill this objective, seeds were germinated in vitro in darkness or 16-hr light photoperiod for 7 days. Cotyledon explants from four watermelon cultivars (`Crimson Sweet', `Minilee', `Sweet Gem', and `Yellow Doll') were prepared from both dark- and light-grown seedlings. Apical and basal halves were obtained by making a cut across the cotyledon width. Apical and basal quarters were made, for comparison, by cutting apical and basal halves longitudinally. All explants were incubated on shoot regeneration medium for 6 weeks followed by a 3-week cycle on shoot elonga-tion medium. The percentage of cotyledons with shoots was 1.7-fold greater for cotyledons derived from seedings incubated in darkness than those germinated in light. Shoot formation was about 10-fold greater for explants from cotyledon basal halves and quarters than apical halves and quarters. According to these results, the best watermelon regeneration protocol should consists of basal explants from in vitro-germinated seedlings incubated in the dark for 7 days.
Luping Qu, Xiping Wang, Ying Chen, Richard Scalzo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jeanine M. Davis, and James F. Hancock
Seed germination patterns were studied in Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench grouped by seed source, one group of seven lots from commercially cultivated populations and a second group of nine lots regenerated from ex situ conserved wild populations. Germination tests were conducted in a growth chamber in light (40 μmol·m–2·s–1) or darkness at 25 °C for 20 days after soaking the seeds in water for 10 minutes. Except for two seed lots from wild populations, better germination was observed for commercially cultivated populations in light (90% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 95%) and in darkness (88% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 97%) than for wild populations in light (56% mean among seed lots, ranging from 9% to 92%) or in darkness (37% mean among seed lots, ranging from 4% to 78%). No germination difference was measured between treatments in light and darkness in the commercially cultivated populations, but significant differences were noted for treatments among wild populations. These results suggest that repeated cycles of sowing seeds during cultivation without treatments for dormancy release resulted in reduced seed dormancy in E. purpurea.
Most Phalaenopsis (the moth orchid) species and hybrids start to produce flowering shoots in the fall, bloom in January or February, and become limited in supply by April when market demand is strong. Means to defer the onset of flowering were studied. Starting 15 Sept. 1994, seedlings of 2-year-old hybrid Phalaenopsis TAM Butterfly were exposed to repeated cycles of 1 d darkness/1 d light (natural photoperiod, 1D/1L); 4 d darkness/3 d light (4D/3L); 7 d darkness/7 d light (7D/7L); and the natural photoperiod control (0D/7L). The dark treatments were achieved by covering plants with black fabric or by placing them in a dark cage. Treatments were terminated on 16 Dec., and all plants were exposed to the natural photoperiod. The control plants bloomed on 20 Jan. 1995, whereas the 4D/3L plants did not reach anthesis until 14 Apr., nearly 3 months later. Flowering of the 1D/1L and 7D/7L plants was also deferred until early April. Regardless of treatments, flower count and size were unaffected. In another experiment, beginning 15 Sept. 1995, 3-year-old plants were exposed to repeated weekly cycles of 2D/5L, 3D/4L, 4D/3L, or 5D/2L until 22 Jan. 1996. The nontreated control plants bloomed on 8 Feb. 1996, whereas the 5D/2L did not reach anthesis until 6 May. The 4D/3L treatment was not as effective as it was in 1994 and resulted in anthesis only 4 weeks after the control. In the last experiment, starting on 22 Jan. 1996, plants were removed at 2-week intervals from a 5D/2L treatment that was initiated on 15 Sept. 1995 and exposed to the natural photoperiod. Staggered anthesis was achieved. However, plants that bloomed in May and June had reduced flower count but not flower size.
A.W. Stretch, M.K. Ehlenfeldt, and V. Brewster
In vitro conidia production by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey, the cause of mummy berry disease in blueberry, was significantly enhanced by cellulose acetate membranes placed on the surface of V-8 juice agar for most of the pathogen isolates tested, compared to V-8 juice agar alone. Temperature and light affected conidia production, but the effects were not consistent. Higher temperature (22 vs. 15 °C) yielded better sporulation, but the effects of light environment were variable. When 55 isolates from various sources were rated visually for sporulation on cellulose acetate membranes at 22 °C under ambient light/dark cycles, a wide range of conidium production was observed, and three of 55 isolates (6%) were identified as having very high conidia production.
Zhongchun Wang and Bruno Quebedeaux
One-year-old `Gala' apple trees which experienced either water stress (WS) or no stress (CK) were exposed to a 60-min pulse of 14CO2. The distributions of newly-fixed 14C-photosynthates and total individual carbohydrates (both labelled and non-labelled) were monitored every 2 or 4 h for a 24-h period. During the 24-h period, half the WS and CK plants received 24-h continuous light and the other half received a 12-h photoperiod (8:00 am to 8:00 PM). WS stimulated the 14C partitioning into sucrose (suc) during the first 2-4 h period while the partitioning into glucose (glu) and fructose (fru) was inhibited in mature leaves. WS significantly inhibited the partitioning of 14C into starch. At the end of the 24-h period, a greater partitioning of 14C into sorbitol (sor) was observed under WS in leaves, stems and roots. WS lowered starch levels in all plant parts and the dark cycle further stimulated starch breakdown. Starch breakdown during the dark cycle resulted in the accumulation of glu and suc but not sor whereas in light sor accumulated with higher sorbitol/starch ratios. Light and energy requirements for sor synthesis and metabolism will be discussed.
G.W. Stutte, N.C. Yorio, C.L. Mackowiak, and R.M. Wheeler
This experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that tuber formation in potato is inhibited by short-term increases in root-zone temperature. Micro-propagated potato cv. Norland plantlets were grown in recirculating nutrient film culture under daylight fluorescent lamps at 350 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPF with at 20/16°C thermocycle at 1200 μmol·mol–1 CO2 under inductive (12-hr light/12-hr dark) or non-inductive (12-hr light/12-hr dark with a 15-min light break 6 hr into the cycle) photoperiods for 42 days. Root-zone treatments consisted of continuous 18°C, continuous 24°C, 18°C with a 24°C cycle between 14 and 21 DAP (prior to tuber initiation), and 18°C with a 24°C cycle between 21 and 28 DAP (during the period of tuber initiation). The root-zone temperature was maintained with a recirculating, temperature-controlled, heat-exchange coil submerged in each nutrient solution. Warm root-zone temperatures did not inhibit tuber formation under an inductive photoperiod. The non-inductive photoperiod resulted in a 65% reduction in tuber biomass compared to the inductive photoperiod. Continuous 24°C and exposure to 24°C prior to tuber initiation reduced tuber formation an additional 40% under the non-inductive photoperiod. Both continuous and transient 24°C root-zone temperatures increased biomass partitioning to root/stolons compared to the 18°C treatment under both photoperiods. Total plant biomass was highest in plants exposed to continuous 24°C under both photoperiods. Results suggest that transient episodes of warm (24°C) root-zone temperature do not inhibit tuber formation in potato under inductive photoperiods. However, transient episodes of warm (24°C) root-zone temperatures did interact with stage of development under the non-inductive photoperiod.
Richard Y. Evans and Michael S. Reid
Rhythmic pulses of irreversible petal expansion in rose (Rosa hybrida L. ‘Sonia’) petals cause diurnal changes in the rate of flower opening. Time-lapse cinematography revealed a transient increase in the rate of rose flower opening that commenced shortly before the onset of a light period and lasted for a few hours. Petal expansion, which occurred sequentially from the outer to the innermost whorl, involved rhythmic increases in fresh and dry weights. The amount of expansion was greatest in the distal portion of each petal and least near the petal base. Periods of rapid expansion were accompanied by decreases in starch and increases in soluble sugars in the petals, but the total carbohydrate content of the petals remained constant during a light–dark cycle. During expansion, the osmotic potential of the outer petal increased from −790 to −690 kPa. Starch hydrolysis during petal growth appears to be important for maintenance of cell size, but it is not the factor controlling cell expansion.