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Jayesh B. Samtani, Curt R. Rom, Heather Friedrich, Steven A. Fennimore, Chad E. Finn, Andrew Petran, Russell W. Wallace, Marvin P. Pritts, Gina Fernandez, Carlene A. Chase, Chieri Kubota, and Brad Bergefurd

fumigation due to the added expense, management, and negative impact on the environment. Most farms are monitoring and improving soils and using crop rotation as alternatives to soil fumigation. Interest in controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) of

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Jason Ernest Elvin Dampier, Richard W. Harper, Ashley McElhinney, and Eric Biltonen

sold $0 worth of [eastern] hemlocks the past 2 years.” Although new plantings of eastern hemlock are likely in decline, the control of HWA on susceptible hemlock species can be achieved through recurring insecticide applications ( Harper and Cowles

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Georgina D. Arthur, Adeyemi O. Aremu, Manoj G. Kulkarni, and Johannes Van Staden

a great extent, the state of the global environment ( Lyson, 2002 ). The use of sustainable agricultural practices that entail the conservation of resources and the environment remains a viable option to increase agricultural product output ( Lazcano

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Filippo Rimi, Stefano Macolino, and Bernd Leinauer

( Christians, 1998 ). Under restrictive climate conditions, the time required to produce a sod of warm-season species may exceed the period of time in which temperatures are in the optimum range for growth ( Beard, 1973 ). In transitional environments

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov and Tess Astatkie

Some agricultural soils in Nova Scotia and other parts of North America are Pb-enriched as a result of the application of PbHAsO 4 insecticide in apple orchards several decades ago ( Chisholm, 1972 ; MacLean and Langille, 1973 ). Although the Pb

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Yanjiao Zheng, Zaiqiang Yang, Chao Xu, Lin Wang, Haijing Huang, and Shiqiong Yang

.R. Kalantari, F. Ting, K.C. Thorp, K.R. Hameed, I.A. Weltzien, C. Ahmad, D. Shad, Z.M. 2018b Advances in greenhouse automation and controlled environment agriculture: A transition to plant factories and urban agriculture Intl. J. Agr. Biol. Eng. 11 1 22

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Nebahat Sari, Emily Silverman, Danny Reiland, and Todd C. Wehner

watermelon seedlings at low temperature HortTechnology 27 93 98 Thomas, J.F. Downs, R.J. Saravitz, C.H. 2005 Phytotron procedural manual for controlled environment research at the southeastern plant environment laboratory. NCARS Tech. Bull. 244 (revised) Xing

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Chieri Kubota, Michael A. McClure, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Michael G. Bausher, and Erin N. Rosskopf

duration of transportation or disease epidemic could result in a long-term impact on plant growth and yield. New controlled environment technology. One critical item necessary for successful grafted seedling production is uniformity of seedlings

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Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel

February ( Korczynski et al., 2002 ). Supplemental lighting is often needed to produce high-quality crops in controlled-environment agriculture but can substantially increase production costs. For example, van Iersel and Gianino (2017) estimated that the

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Heidi C. Anderson, Mary A. Rogers, and Emily E. Hoover

environment agriculture have created new opportunities for producing day-neutral strawberries as annuals in some regions of the United States where conditions have traditionally been considered unsuitable ( Hoover et al., 2014 ; Petran et al., 2017 ; Solomon